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Kleiss, Wolfram (continued)
Die Entwicklung von Palästen und palastartigen Wohnbauten in Iran (1989)
In: Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Iranistik
Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1989
 
Klepper, Erhard
Costume in antiquity (1964)
London: Thames & Hudson, 1964, 139 p.
Abstract: Plates ... drawn and arranged by Erhard Klepper. Introduction by James Laver.
 
Klima, Otakar
Ruhm und Untergang des alten Iran (1988)
Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus Verlag, 1988, 230 p.
Abstract: mit Illustrationen von H. Paditz
 
Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim
Gnosis on the Silk Road : Gnostic texts from Central Asia (translated & presented by Hans-Joachim Klimkeit) (1993)
San Francisco: Harper, 1993, 405 p.
Abstract: Foreword by James M. Robinson. See especially section X "Verses from the Parthian Hymn Cycles" (pp. 99-122), and section XV "An Index of Parthian Hymns" (pp. 169-176)

In this work, Klimkeit (history of religion, Univ. of Bonn) makes available for the first time in English a little-known corpus of texts that are extremely important for the study of Manicheanism, a serious rival to early Christianity. Klimkeit, who is German, translates the original mainly Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, and Turkish documents into good English. An introductory chapter sets forth the theological and historical milieu of these "Turfan texts," which are incomplete to fragmentary. Brief introductory comments precede each text, with generous notes following. This work will appeal to those studying Manicheanism and the Gnostic religions who are not comfortable with the original languages or who want an easily accessible compendium. [Library Journal]
 
Klose, D. O. A.
"Statthalter, Könige, Rebellen. Die Münzen der Persis vom 3. vorchristlichen Jahrhundert bis zum Beginn des Sasanidenreichs" (2005)
Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt, 2005, p. 93-103.
Abstract: Courte présentation de 26 monnaies des rois de Perside, dont 25 de la collection Staatliche Münzsammlung München, pour la plupart dons d’un collectionneur. Un catalogue détaillé va être publié lors d’une exposition spéciale. La présentation des monnaies qui sont classées chronologiquement – commençant par Baydād et s’achevant par Ardashir V – est accompagnée d’un commentaire numismatique/historique. Parmi ces monnaies se trouve une drachme de Vahbarz, dont l’authenticité est discutable. Son revers montre le meurtre d’un hoplite gréco-macédonien par un homme vêtu comme un roi achéménide ; dans la légende se trouve le titre krny (= karanos). L’A. plaide pour l’authenticité de cette monnaie. Le titre de ‘karanos’ apparaît aussi sur une tétradrachme de Vahbarz, publiée ici pour la première fois. [Karin Mosig-Walburg, Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 28, mis en ligne le : 18 septembre 2007. http://abstractairanica.revues.org/document16802.html]
 
Knappert, J.
"The East African Coast: Some Notes on Its History" (1992)
Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 1992, vol. 23, p. 143-178.
Abstract: Mentions some Parthian and Sasanian coins recovered in parts of the Eastern African coast, pp. 146, 150-151.
 
Knudsen, S. E. & Luckner, K. T.
"Ein graeco-persisches Rhyton im Toledo Museum of Art" (1991)
Antike Welt, 1991, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 115-118.
 
Koch, Heidemarie
"Herrscher in der Persis unter Seleukiden und Parthern" (1988)
Die Welt des Orients, 1988, vol. 19, p. 84-95.
 
A Hoard of Coins from Eastern Parthia (1990)
In: Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 165
New York: American Numismatic Society, 1990, x+64 p.
Abstract: The hoard at the Getty Museum includes 266 copper coins, mostly "drachm" weights, ca A.D. 1-200, found in present-day Iran and clearly most of them must come from the northeastern part of the Parthian kingdom. All are of the Parthian type with the exception of 19 coins from Elymais.

There are no certain dates in the find, but the sequencing of the coins and matches to similar known types allows new chronologies for both the Elymean kings and for eastern Parthia rulers who struck coins at Aria, Margiana, Abarshahr and Traxiana. The author concludes that there was a region enjoying a different status from both the Indo-Parthians to the east and the Parthians to the west in late 2nd century A.D. She also finds the coins should not be assigned to Sakastan; they represent a separate, more or less independent administrative area with kings probably related to a family centered in Aria.

See reviews: J. P. A. van der Vin, Beeldenaar 16 (1992), pp. 25-26; D. Sellwood, Numismatic Chronicle 153 (1993), pp. 311-312; Rika Gyselen, Studia Iranica 22 (1993) 22:1, pp. 140-141.
 
"Heimat und Stammvater der Arsakiden: Zu den Anfängen des partischen Königreiches" (1993)
Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, 1993, vol. 23, p. 165-173.
Abstract: Michael Alram wrote a short commentary about this article in "Stand und Aufgaben der arsakidischen Numismatik", in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, J. Wiesehöfer ed., Historia Einzelschriften 122, Stuttgart 1998, 369-370.
 
Koehler, Heinrich
Die Nachfolge in der Seleukidenherrschaft und die parthische Haltung im römisch-pontischen Konflikt (1978)
In: Bochumer historische Studien. Alte Geschichte, Nr. 3
Bochum: Studienverlag Brockmeyer, 1978, ii+169 p.
 
Köhler, Karl
A History of Costume (1937)
London: Harrap, 1937, 464 p.
Abstract: Edited & augmented by Emma Von Sichart, translated by Alexander K. Dallas M.A. (originally published in 1928 as Praktische Kostümkunde in 600 Bildern und Schnitten / nach Carl Köhler; bearbeitet von Emma von Sichart).

Includes: The Peoples of Antiquity
The Egyptians – the Ethiopians – The Syrians and Phoenicians – the Hebrews – the Assyrians and Babylonians – the Medes and Persians – the Scythians – the Parthians – the Sarmatians, Dacians and Illyrians – The Peoples of Asia Minor – The Greeks – The Etruscans – The Romans – The Dress of the Byzantine Emperors
 
Köhler, Karl & Sichart, Emma von
Praktische Kostümkunde in 600 Bildern und Schnitten (1926)
In: 2 volumes
München: F. Bruckmann, 1926, 545 p.
Abstract: A brief section on Parthian costume with four line drawings, pp. 48-51.
 
König, W.
"Ein galvanisches Element aus der Partherzeit?" (1938)
Forschungen und Fortschritte, 1938, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 8-9.
Abstract: Parthian 'wet cells'?
 
Korn, Agnes
Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi : Studies in Balochi Historical Phonology and Vocabulary (2005)
In: Series: Beiträge zur Iranistik 26
Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2005, 469 p.
Abstract: Revised version of author's PhD thesis at the Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe University Frankfurt a.M., 2003.

The aim of the present work is to contribute to the knowledge of Balochi historical grammar. The main part of the book is a new discussion of the historical phonology of Balochi, the only comprehensive treatment of which existing so far dates from the end of the 19th century. Meanwhile, new material from a wide range of Balochi dialects and varieties has come to light. This makes it possible to distinguish between sound changes affecting the Balochi language as a whole and those that operate only in some variety; the approach to do so systematically is attempted here for the first time. Reassessing previous treatments and comparing important related languages (chiefly New Persian, Parthian and Avestan), the book analyses the development of Old Iranian sounds to the stage of Common Balochi and the changes leading from that stage to the variants spoken today in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and some other countries.

The results indicate contact with other languages, specifically with Persian, as several Balochi sound changes are not such as we might expect in a North Western Iranian language. Concerning other sound changes, Balochi differs from all attested Middle Iranian languages. The predecessor of contemporary Balochi seems to have been a dialect rather similar to Parthian, but differing from it in a number of details. So the study of Balochi sound changes provides evidence for Middle Iranian dialectal variation.

The diversity and intensity of contacts with neighbouring languages is also reflected in the Balochi lexicon of which selected fields are presented and discussed. The layers of loanwords show a continuing influence of Persian from the earliest times to the present day, relationships to Kurdish, Pashto and Brahui, and, particularly in the field of kinship terminology, intense contact with speakers of Modern Indic languages.

The book is complemented by a morphological appendix and a comprehensive etymological index. It is intended as a contribution in the fields of New Iranian languages and historical Iranian linguistics. [Author]

The Conclusion section
is interesting for students of Parthian. The rest of the book is not focussed on Parthian, but author quotes the Parthian equivalent (where attested) for every Balochi word quoted, and Parthian figures rather prominently in the etymological and other indexes.
 
"Parthian Month Names and Calendars" (2006)
Parthica, 2006, vol. 8, p. 153-168.
 
Kose, Arno
Uruk: Die Architektur III. Von der Seleukiden- bis zur Sasanidenzeit (1995?)
In: Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka: Endberichte
Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern, 1995
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A.
"Gorodskij stroj polisov Zapadnoj Parfii" (1960)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1960, no. 4, p. 73-82.
 
"La civilisation de la Parthie dans les travaux récents" [in Russian] (1962)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1962, p. 166-178.
 
"La frontalité dans l'art parthe" [in Russian] (1962)
In: Recueil historico-archéologique en l'honneur de Av. Arzihorsky
1962, p. 135-146.
 
"Parfianskaia fortifikatsiia" [Parthian fortification] (1963)
Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 1963, vol. 1963.2
 
"Vnutripoliticheskaya bor'ba v Parfii (vtoraya polovina I v. do nashei ery-nachalo I v. nashei ery" (1963)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1963, no. 3, p. 56-68.
 
Kultura Parfii (1966)
Moscow: Nauka, 1966, 217 p.
Abstract: Cited by Frye [1984, p. 205 ] as a general source for Parthia, but adding little to Debevoise except in realm of art and culture.
 
"The Beginning of Buddhism in Margiana" (1966)
Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1966, vol. 14, p. 175-183.
 
"Greceskaja nadpis' na parfjanskom ritone" (1967)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1967, no. 2, p. 167-170.
 
"Niekotoryje woprosy istorii rannie j Parfii" [Problems of Early Parthian History, in Russian] (1968)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1968, vol. 1, p. 53-71.
Abstract: Résumé in English. Koshelenko proposes an order for the first five Parthian kings. Certain problems is the rise and early history of the Arsacid kingdom can be solved only by combining numismatic information and other sources. A detailed study is made of points supporting early and later dating for early Arsacid coins with obv.: beardless head in soft helmet; the earlier dating is preferred. Coins with legends ARSAKOU, BASILEWS ARSAKOU and BASILEWS QEOU ARSAKOU are attributed to Arsaces I; coins with the legend BASILEWS MEGALOU ARSAKOU, bow between P and S and reverse monogram, or the legend BASILEWS MEGALOU ARSAKOU QEOPATOROS are attributed to Arsaces II and the remaining coins, with the legend BASILEWS MEGALOU ARSAKOU, to Phriapatius and Phraates I. [E. V. Zeimal']
 
"Suse sous les Séleucides et les Parthes : les trouvailles monétaires et l'histoire de la ville par Georges Le Rider" (Book Review) (1969)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1969, no. 1, p. 192-194.
 
"Charskaya vlast' i EE obosnovanie v ranney Parfii" (1971)
In: Gafurov, B. G., Grantovskiy, E. A. & Ivanov, M. S. (eds.), Istoriya iranskogo gosudarstva i kul'turi k 2500-letiyu Iranskogo gosudarstva, Moskva
1971, p. 212-218.
 
"La politique commerciale des arsacides et les villes grecques" (1971)
In: Studi in Onore di Edoardo Volterra, Vol. I
1971, p. 761-765.
 
"Drakhma Sinatruka s nadchekankoi Otany" [Drachm of Sinatruk with an Otan reverse] (1971)
Numizmatika i Epigrafika, 1971, vol. 9, p. 33-37.
 
"Monetnoe delo Parfii pri Mitridate I" [Les monnaies des Parthes et Mithridate 1er] (1972)
Numizmatika i Epigrafika, 1972, vol. 10, p. 79-102.
Abstract: Vol. I or vol. 10?
 
"Генеалогия первых аршакидов (еще раз о низийском остраке № 1760)" [Genealogy of the first Arsacids (once again about Nisa ostracon 1760), in Russian] (1976)
In: Gafurov, B. G. & Litvinsky, B. A. (eds.), Istoriya i kultura narodov Srednei Azii (drevnost' i srednie veka)
Moscow: Nauka, 1976, p. 31-37.
Abstract: Koshelenko proposes a new theory of descent based on the ostraca of Nisa, reconciles both Justin (Trogus) and Arrian (and Syncellus) accounts. Frye [1984, 209] bases his acceptance of Koshelenko's theory of descent of the Arsacids on this article.
Italian translation published in Mesopotamia 17 (1982), pp. 133-146.
English translation published on Parthia.com (2008).

"The article contains an analysis of the data on the genealogy of the first Arsacids from the ostrakon No. 1760 of the Nisian Archive. On comparing these data with those from the written sources (Justin and Arrian), the author is able to modify the genealogy established by his predecessors. A comparison of the data from early Parthian history from works of Arrian and Justin enables the author to eleucidate a number of trends which existed in the official ideology of Parthia and substantiated the right of descendants of Tiridates to the Parthian throne." ["Abstracts of papers included in the collection", Istoriya i kultura narodov Srednei Azii: drevnost i srednie veka, B. G. Gafurov and B.A. Litvinsky, eds., (Moskva: Nauka, 1976), p. 168]
 
Rodina Parfyan (1977)
Moscow: Sov. khudozhnik, 1977, 175 p.
Abstract: Numerous color plates of items unpublished elsewhere, but plates are not of highest quality. Entirely in Russian, no translated summary.
 
Grecheskii polis na ellinisticheskom Vostoke (1979)
Moscow: Nauka, 1979, 295 p.
Abstract: At head of title: Akademiia nauk SSSR. Institut arkheologii
 
"Les cavaliers parthes. Aspects de la structure sociale de la Parthie" (1980)
In: Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon ; Centre de recherches d'histoire ancienne (Series), Vol 6 [also seen as in Dialogue d'Histoire Ancienne, 6]
Paris: Les Belle Lettres, 1980, p. 177-199.
 
"La genealogia dei primi arsacidi (ancora sul'ostrakon di Nisa n. 1760)" [Italian tr. by A. Invernizzi] (1982)
Mesopotamia, 1982, vol. 17, p. 133-146.
Abstract: Italian translation by A. Invernizzi of Koshelenko's "Genealogiya Pervykh Arshakidov (eshche raz o nisiyskom ostrake no. 1760)".

"The article contains an analysis of the data on the genealogy of the first Arsacids from the ostrakon No. 1760 of the Nisian Archive. On comparing these data with those from the written sources (Justin and Arrian), the author is able to modify the genealogy established by his predecessors. A comparison of the data from early Parthian history from works of Arrian and Justin enables the author to eleucidate a number of trends which existed in the official ideology of Parthia and substantiated the right of descendants of Tiridates to the Parthian throne." ["Abstracts of papers included in the collection", Istoriya i kultura narodov Srednei Azii (drevnost' i srednie veka), 1976, p. 168]
 
"The fortifications of Parthian and Sasanian Gobekli " (2004)
In: Symposium: After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam. Themes in the history and Archaeology of Western Central Asia
The British Academy, London, 23-25 June 2004
2004
Abstract: Gobekli-depe is located on the north-west edge of the Merv oasis. It was in existence for three periods, the Early Iron Age and the Parthian and Sasanian periods. There was a fortified residence on a high platform during the Early Iron Age (Yaz-2 and Yaz-3), after which it was abandoned.

During the Parthian period (1st century AD) the rulers began to re-settle lands in the northern part of the oasis. A fortress with a large central building was erected above the ruins of the former residence. The fortress was square in plan with towers at each corner and another by the narrow gate in the centre of the south wall. There were intra-mural corridors. There were two identical periods during the life of these fortifications.

The fortress was rebuilt in the Early Sasanian period. The Parthian building was filled in and another building erected on top. Its plan was unusual and no parallels have been found. The fortifications were also rebuilt, retaining their former shape - walls with internal corridors, four corner towers and a gate tower. Several stages in the re-building have been identified. At the end of Gobekli-depe's existence major changes were introduced: the internal corridors were divided by transverse walls to form 'accommodation units' consisting of two or three small rooms. Doors were cut through the internal wall leading into these 'apartments'. The site was abandoned at the end of the 4th century AD (no coins were found later than Shapur II).

The Sasanian fortifications of Gobekli-depe can be compared with those at Erk-kala, Gyaur-kala and Chilburj. [Author]
 
"Il commercio in età seleucide e partica" (2007)
In: Invernizzi, Antonio (ed.), Sulla via di Alessandro da Seleucia al Gandhara (Catalog of the exhibition, Palazzo Madama, Torino, 27 Feb to 27 May 2007)
Torino: Edizioni Silvana Editoriale, 2007
 
"Genealogy of the First Arsacids (once again about Nisa Ostracon 1760)" [English tr. by Vadim Nikitin] (2008)
Fairborn, Ohio: Parthia.com Web Site, 2007
Abstract: Vadim Nikitin's English translation of Koshelenko's "Genealogiya Pervykh Arshakidov (eshche raz o nisiyskom ostrake no. 1760)".

The article contains an analysis of the data on the genealogy of the first Arsacids from the ostrakon No. 1760 of the Nisian Archive. On comparing these data with those from the written sources (Justian and Arrian), the author is able to modify the genealogy established by his predecessors. A comparison of the data from early Parthian history from works by Justin and Arrian enables the author to elucidate a number of trends which existed in the official ideology of Parthia and substantiated the right of descendants of Tiridates to the Parthian throne. ["Abstracts of papers included in the collection", Istoriya i kultura narodov Srednei Azii: drevnost i srednie veka, B. G. Gafurov and B.A. Litvinsky, eds., (Moskva: Nauka, 1976), p. 168]

Frye [1984, 209] bases his acceptance of Koshelenko's theory of descent of the Arsacids on this article.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Hakopyan, Aram
Town planning in Armenia and Parthia (1978)
Yerevan: Academy of Sciences of Armenian SSR, 1978, 11 p.
Abstract: "II International Symposium on Armenian Art." Includes bibliographical references.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Lapshin, A. G.
"Ricerche nel complesso del Tempio Rotondo a Nisa Vecchia" (2002)
Parthica, 2002, vol. 4, p. 9-45.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Nikitin, Alexander B.
Monetnye nakhodki i problemy stratigrafii Gebekly-depe" [Numismatic finds and the problem of stratigraphy of Gobekly-depe] (1991)
In: Informatsionnyi biulleten, MAIKTSA, no. 18
Moscow: 1991, p. 108-121.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Novikov, S.
"Manumissii Selevkii na Evlee" (1979)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1979, no. 2, p. 41-54.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Pilipko, V.N.
"Parthia" (1994)
In: Harmatta, Janos (ed.), History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. 2 : The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250
Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1994, p. 131-150.
Abstract: A superb short summary of the empire's history with good insights into the politics with Rome, socio-economic factors, culture, administration art and coinage. Included are plates with six coins: Arsaces II, Artabanus I, Phraates IV, Phraataces and Queen Musa, Osroes I and Vologases V. Also included are pictures of a Parthian ivory rhyton and the Parthian prince statue from the temple of Shammi.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A. & Sarianidi, Viktor Ivanovich
"Les Monnaies de la necropole Tillia-Tepe (Afghanistan)" (1992)
Studia Iranica, 1992, vol. 21, no. fasc. 1, p. 21-32.
Abstract: Publishes the three Parthian coins of the Tillya-teppe graves.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A., Bader, Andrej & Gaibov, Vassif
"Materials for an Archaeological Map of the Margiana: The Changly Region" (1991)
Mesopotamia, 1991, vol. 26
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A., Gaibov, Vassif & Bader, Andrej
"Evolution of the Settlement Patterns in the Merv oasis (Turkmenistan) from Alexander the Great to Arab Conquest" (1994)
In: La Persia e l'Asie centrale. Da Alessandro al X secolo. Convegno internazionale organizzato in collaborazione con l'Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente: Roma, 9-12 novembre 1994. Atti dei Convegni Lincei, 127
Rome: 1996, p. 305-317.
 
"Two Goddesses" (in Russian) (1995)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1995, no. 2, p. 194-213.
 
Koshelenko, Gennadij A.; Bader, Andrei & Gaibov, Vassif
"The Beginnings of Christianity In Merv" (1995)
Iranica Antiqua, 1995, vol. 30, p. 55-70.
Abstract: The history of Christianity in Merv is well-known enough beginning with the Sassanian era, thanks to the famous Chronicle of Seert and al-Biruni’s descriptions. Other sources are unfortunately very often neglected, so one could have the impression that the earliest penetration of Christianity into Merv is only from the IVth century A.D. However, some materials show clearly that a certain presence of Christian religion can be traced in the town of Merv as well as in the area of the Merv oasis (Margiana) already in the Parthian epoch.
 
Bibliography - Page 34

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