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Awards

ICRA Child Safe Parthia.com has been certified by the Family Online Safety Institute (FOSI) to be in compliance with ICRA site labeling. This web site is child-safe. (Mar 2007)
 
Google Logo Google rank #1 among the 344,000 Parthia pages world-wide (Aug 2006)
 
awardnum.gif (125x124 -- 10895 bytes) In August 2004, the members of the Forum Classical Numismatics Discussion Board voted to give PARTHIA.COM their FORVM Award for Numismatic Excellence. This award is given to Internet sites that are especially informative to the coin collecting community and which promote the hobby in general.
 
numismatichistory.jpg (270x19 -- 5245 bytes)
a web review essay by Douglas Mudd
 
PARTHIA.COM is included in the numismatic web sites reviewed in October 2002 by Douglas Mudd, then curator of The  Smithsonian numismatic collection. I am especially proud of this favorable review by a professional numismatist who is now curator of the American Numismatic Association collection.
 
The Celator Award The July 2001 issue of The Celator designated PARTHIA.COM as Internet Site of the Month, noting "Parthian coinage has never looked better. Parthia.com gives the full treatment to the history, culture and coins of ancient Parthia."
 
Britannica Internet Guide Award  eb_icn-star-2.gif (66 bytes) In January 2000, the Encyclopaedia Britannica editors awarded PARTHIA.COM a  two-star "recommended" rating in The Web's Best Sites.
 
Netcenter Editor's Choice Web Site ed_choice.gif (160 bytes) PARTHIA.COM selected as a Netcenter Editor's Choice web site in August 1999, citing a "well-presented collection ... obviously a labor of love."
 

Webivore Featured Site

PARTHIA.COM selected as a Webivore featured site on 22 Jun 1999. Webivore is a comprehensive research system for the web, providing educational resources -- it limits its recommendations to critically reviewed academic sites.
 

Perseus Award

PARTHIA.COM received the Perseus Award on 27 Jan 1999. The Perseus Award is designed to recognize and honor those who spread information about the classical world over the internet.

Comments


Name: Kouros Memari
Email: kouros7@hotmail.com
Date: 10/31/2007
Time: 3:55:49 AM

Comments

I am very surprised and disappointed to see such a known fact and knowledge of the Persian Gulf has been ignored by you and naming it on your map of Parthia as the GULF only. Are you aware of your mistake or not. thank you. K.Memari


Name: Paul
Email: PaulLfrty@yahoo.com
Date: 9/19/2007
Time: 6:17:09 PM

Comments

Greetings- Specifically I was looking for info concerning religion. Ancient gods, cults, and rites; especially those that intermingles with Greek and Roman Pantheon. If you have any info or know of other sites to check out I would be very grateful.


Name: M. Z. Khorasani
Email: mzkhorasani@hotmail.com
Date: 8/23/2007
Time: 5:00:03 PM

Comments

To: Mr. Chris Hopkins www.parthia.com

Dear Mr. Hopkins, RE: coins of Elymais Tehran, August 19, 2007 Reference is made to our corresponding exchanged in September 2002 on ANCHOR and FALEH sign in Elymais coins and corrections I pointed out about them. I sent you images of my coins for your notion and further measures to be taken, but apparently you have not received them appropriately. While I appreciate your endeavor and effort in managing such profound site, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the job you have done. I have a collection consisting about 2500 different Elymais coins of which I am sending 52 examples of both silver and copper. If you find them of interest and value, you can share them in you site giving my name. These images are totally intact without any edition. Some of the coins are unique which I believe you do not have them and some of them belong to Kamnaskires and I hope that would be useful. I would like to draw your kind attention to the point that in Kamnaskires coin there is a Sun carved in the coin instead of usual Star and Moon. You will certainly find more delicate points in each of them. Please let me know if you have received them in proper and intact shapes.

Cordially Yours, M. Z. Khorasani


Name: razirh taasob
Email: taasob_r@yahoo.com
Date: 8/22/2007
Time: 3:42:16 AM

Comments

please inform us about new publication of kushan period


Name: bev
Email: BJB75149@aol.com
Date: 7/7/2007
Time: 10:12:53 PM

Comments

Greetings Chris I

n your time line of world events..it says the camel was domesticated 200-100 BCE. The Arabs had Drometary camels domesticated by 700 BCE. It was Cyaxares who introduced the camel to Egypt.


Name:
Email:
Date: 6/30/2007
Time: 5:41:52 PM

Comments

Broken link: The Musical Culture of Eastern Parthia and Hellenistic East: Parallels in Fine Art and Architecture and the one below. great website. will try the recipes :)


Name: Massoume Price
Email: massoume@hotmail
Date: 5/12/2007
Time: 8:20:02 PM

Comments

Dear Chris

Do you know where I can buy or get very good quality (print quality) pictures of coins with Queens Musa and Anzaze? Ans also of statues from Hatra (male and females with elaborate clothing).

Many thanks Massoume


Name: Massoume Price
Email: massoume@hotmail
Date: 5/12/2007
Time: 8:17:09 PM

Comments

My e mail was changed and I have tried to join again, but I am not getting any e mails. Could you please direct me to the right link again. Thanks


Name: razieh Taasob
Email: taasob_r@yahoo.com
Date: 5/8/2007
Time: 5:29:07 AM

Comments

parthian and kushan art (sculpter)


Name:
Email:
Date: 4/16/2007
Time: 7:58:08 PM

Comments

Map is not dated.


Name: Martin Sugarman
Email: martin.sugarman@westking.ac.uk
Date: 3/26/2007
Time: 11:30:21 AM

Comments

We are searching for the grave of a British Merchant Navy Officer Lt. Lionel Aubrey Burnstein, died of illness 7th July 1945 , crew of SS British Sovereign. Burwod in a cemetery in Abadan 8th July. Do you have an Iranian contact in Abadan who could look for and photograph the grave so we can read the inscription? It would be in a European cemetery, perhaps in a churchyard even though he was Jewish, and there can only be one in the city. Can you please help as the family have never known where the grave is located. Thank you.


Name:
Email:
Date: 3/25/2007
Time: 7:43:45 PM

Comments

Partha also finds reference in the Hindu scripture of Bhagwat Gita ( part of Mahabharta ) where Arjun and Partha are linked.


Name: Massoume Price
Email: massoume@hotmail.com
Date: 3/5/2007
Time: 12:19:25 PM

Comments

Please update my new e mail address, thanks


Name: reza
Email: markopolo_20@yahoo.com
Date: 2/28/2007
Time: 12:48:49 PM

Comments

hi


Name: Kay Rethorn
Email: krethorn@t-online.de
Date: 2/23/2007
Time: 7:28:20 AM

Comments

Dear Sir.

I got an ancient coin in solid gold almost 900/1000. This is 9mm in size and 2.0gm of weight. I am not able to find out its details in the web. I think, it could be a parthian or indo-parthian goldcoin, because its backside is same , like the backsides if indo-parthian drachms. On the frontside there is only a sitting king to left direction. no letters. Could I send you a picture, please?

Regards Kay Rethorn ( Germany)


Name: nilesh
Email: nildhamsania24179@gmail.com
Date: 2/18/2007
Time: 11:22:17 AM

Comments

hi its me nilesh dhamsania from india . i have a collection of coins when indis was in under british government .king george 5 - 6 - 7 emperor , king edward 7 emperor , victoria empress coin - 1901, all coins are as a indian currency when british government was in india. and i want to sell this collectoin, pls give me approxly value of this collection and help to find out purchaser of this collection. mine email add is above nildhamsania24179@gmail.com and cell no - +91 98251 07770


Name: Teologs
Email: phd911@i.ua
Date: 2/17/2007
Time: 5:55:19 AM

Comments

Hi dude! I am finally able to get to your site to check it out, and it looks great! ... Good luck!


Name: ranji
Email: ranji_my@yahoo.com
Date: 2/12/2007
Time: 1:15:56 AM

Comments

I would like to highlight about the parthians that Dr Samar Abbas wrote about the pallavas which is not exactly true. He associated the recent indian aryan mixture groups such as reddis as part of the pallavas which is not true. The pallavas, as found in the online wikipedia, as been described by Dr H. G. Rawlinson are actually found among the kallars. I myself belong to pallavarayar family background.


Name: Fariborz
Email:
Date: 1/28/2007
Time: 7:34:36 PM

Comments

Why have you renamed the Persian Gulf as the Gulf? Have you not seen all the ancient and modern references? Are you blind to the fact that the name Persian Gulf is backed by historical data? Please correct this oversight in your map. Thank you


Name: T. Martin
Email: jean@one-eleven.net
Date: 1/22/2007
Time: 3:25:39 PM

Comments

I have known for more than twenty years that the Germanic tribes are descended fron the Northern Kingdom (or House of Israel). But my knowledge of the Scythians and the Parthians was nearly non-existent. I'm heartened to see that the eyes and ears of so many descendants of these two huge nations are being opened in these latter days to the Biblical ramifications of these facts.


Name: jeremy
Email: navy_guy38special@yahoo.com
Date: 1/6/2007
Time: 3:29:20 PM

Comments

I found a coin when I was 5 but never gave it any thought. Until 21 years later. It says NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER PMTRP IMP ER (now i have found nothing that ends in ER, but ends in PP) Nero or Ceasar (not sure which) is facing left, which i found out is very odd. Turn it over and there are i think 7 maybe 8 ships. Reads: SAVG VSTC (PORTOCT) Hard to make out the last part. Can you help in the determination of this coin? Thank you


Name:
Email:
Date: 12/5/2006
Time: 3:15:16 PM

Comments

new article: Geoffrey Herman, Iranian Epic Motifs in Josephus' Antiquities (XVIII. 314-370), Journal of Jewish Studies, LVII/2, 2006, pp. 245-268


Name: Rainer Hasenpflug
Email: mail@indus-civilization.info
Date: 12/4/2006
Time: 11:04:56 AM

Comments

Dear Ladies and Gentlemen, Maybe you are interested in the now completely deciphered inscriptions of the Indus Civilization (ca. 3000-1700 BC) in what the Indus empire is shown as 'Indo-Iranian' empire with origin in todays Iran. The original texts contain extensive information about the Indus Civilization. More information at: www.indus-civilization.info Or in the attached press release. In case of any question please contact me. Best regards, Rainer Hasenpflug


Name: Nancy Bergman
Email: nmbergman@hotmail.com
Date: 12/1/2006
Time: 12:54:23 AM

Comments

Hi,
 

I was cruising ancient coins on the internet and found this one. Tell me is this your unknown king coin on your parthia coins page, Circa 80 B.C. from Parthia? http://www.classicalcoins.com/product839.html S0100* 1459 Parthian Kingdom, Mithradates II: AR 18 Drachm Obv. -- Bust l. in tiara Rev. Archer seated r. 4.00 g S0100v: Sellwood 28.6 Other early Parthian coins: http://www.classicalcoins.com/page14a.html Let me know if this ID’s it.

Thanks,

Nancy Bergman

PS Below is the verbage by the coin picture on your website in case you need more info to find it:
Unknown King I (c. 80 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm, 15.42g
Mint/ Seleucia, undated
Obv/ bearded bust left wearing tiara; circular border of dots
Rev/ beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; below bow, Greek letter H; behind archer, Greek letter A; ; in field right, palm branch; six-line Greek inscription BASILEWS MEGALOU ARSAKOU EPIFANOUS FILELLHNOS EUERGETOU; no border
Find spot/ Gombad hoard (IGCH 1814)
Location/ collection B. Simonetta, Italy
- Sellwood 32.1
- BMC Parthia not listed
- M&M Basel 32 (1966), lot 164 (this coin)


Name: Dan
Email: dmazzei@optonline.net
Date: 11/21/2006
Time: 9:12:34 PM

Comments

Great site. How can I submit pics of my unattributed coins?


Name: j puri
Email: mr.jpuri
Date: 10/23/2006
Time: 10:52:23 AM

Comments

dear sir, iam a great fan of mr. amal kumar jha "author of ex moneta" and i will be pleased to u if u give me any contact about him . thanking u


Name: shapour
Email: shapourh@yahoo.com
Date: 10/10/2006
Time: 2:10:37 PM

Comments

the spelling of azarbaijan issue: you have spelled it Azerbaidzhan. the origin of this word is athorpaatkaan. in todays iran and az. republic it is pronounced aazarbaayjaan. the iranian latin spelling is mostly azarbaijan and the az. rep. spelling is azerbaijan. the iranian spellng (or my phonetic spelling) is much closer to todays pronounciaiton than the other forms. regards


Name: Bri
Email: lil_volleyball_lover2010@yahoo.com
Date: 9/27/2006
Time: 6:33:30 PM

Comments

Hey there i think that u should have more bout there back ground!!!


Name: Dr.phil.des. Ulf Jäger
Email: jaeger-u@versanet.de
Date: 7/4/2006
Time: 3:04:00 AM

Comments

Thanks very much for this fascinating and very important list! If possible send me any news you can get, please ! I am a German Archaeologist working mainly on pre-Islamic Central Asia; meanwhile I study the A.H. Francke- and H. Körber-Collection of Archaeological finds from Khotan / Southern Silk Road (Xinjiang / PR China ) of 1914 in the Munich State Museum of Ethnography; it shall be published soon with its first part (catalogue).; if the DFG hopefully will give the money for the study in 2006.

I got the information about your Parthia.com-list by `Doktorvater` Prof. Dr. Dieter Metzler of Münster-University. Any reaction from you are highly welcomed; In the very moment I will write a report for `Encyclopedia Iranica (Ehsan Yarshater / Columbia Ed.) on `Rhyta in Ancient Persia (Achaemenid to late-Sasanians) until 1.2.2007 ! That is the reason why I had to use your list with great effort.

I stay with best wishes and warmest regards.

Sincerely yours,

Ulf Jäger

Post scriptum : As soon as you write back, I´ll send you my bibliography (1998 - 2006 / 28 titles); maybe something is of use for you.


Name: Ronald Wallenfels
Email: rwallenfels@verizon.net
Date: 6/29/2006
Time: 3:44:48 PM

Comments

Note the minor contribution I made to a fine point in the Babylonian calander of the Parthian period in “30 Ajjaru 219 SE = 19 June 93 BCE,” N.A.B.U. 1992/46. There is a link to this article at <http://www.achemenet.com/recherche/textes/babyloniens/nabu/nabu.htm>


Name: Peter Jones
Email: pcaazz5185@free-fast-email.com
Date: 6/28/2006
Time: 4:12:15 AM

Comments

I liked your site


Name: Persian Bookshop
Email: info@iranibook.com
Date: 5/22/2006
Time: 6:24:33 PM

Comments

Hi, May we beg a moment of your valuable time to introduce ourselves. IraniBook.com is the first Iranian Bookshop for selling and distributing new, rare, used, second hand and old Persian Books, Magazines as well as CDs. Please visit our websites at: http://www.iranibook.com & http://www.iranibookshop.com As, our websites are the best references for any Orientalist, students, researchers, libraries & ... it will be very useful if you add us to your link page. If you have any further questions, please don't hesitate to contact us. We will be glad to give you our best service. Hope to hear from you soon. Thank you for your time. Kind regards, Persian Bookshop (IraniBook.com) E-mail: info@iranibook.com Web sites: http://www.iranibook.com http://www.iranibookshop.com


Name: Chris Hopkins
Email: http://parthia.com/_nosearch/email.htm
Date: 4/25/2006
Time: 8:42:56 AM

Comments

Dear Dr. O'Reilly, One cannot subscribe to Parthia.com the web site. It is a static presentation with public access. You are welcome to subscribe to the PARTHIA-L mail list. It is a lightly moderated mail list created to facilitate discussions about Parthia. It is not limited to numismatics, and discussion of all aspects of Parthia is encouraged. Numerous scholars use the list but popular topics are also welcome. To subscribe, send a blank email to Parthia-L-subscribe@yahoogroups.com or visit the mail list's http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Parthia-L/join Best regards, Chris Hopkins


Name: Dr. F.D. O'Reilly
Email: frankolla@fsmail.net
Date: 4/20/2006
Time: 9:21:00 AM

Comments

I am endeavouring to subscribe to parthia.com but without success...the system is just not working.


Name: Dr. F.D. O'Reilly
Email: frankolla@fsmail.net
Date: 4/20/2006
Time: 9:20:54 AM

Comments

I am endeavouring to subscribe to parthia.com but without success...the system is just not working.


Name: tempo
Email: nomail@hotmail.com
Date: 4/14/2006
Time: 7:25:34 PM

Comments

WAY YOU NAME PERSIAN GULF THE GULF?


Name: oslonor
Email: oslonordic@yahoo.com
Date: 3/16/2006
Time: 1:50:03 AM

Comments

The Rise of Afghan Empire http://afghanempire.blogspot.com/


Name: Charles A. Saunders
Email: cas@thumpernet.com
Date: 3/9/2006
Time: 3:41:48 PM

Comments

Great site! I like the many photos of coins not usually seen. Easy to use too. This site has encouraged me to find all of the photos of Parthian silver drachms that have passed through my hands. I was in a very unique position of seeing large numbers of the Parthian drachms through a contact in the Middle East.


Name: Jeff Lerner
Email: lernerjd@wfu.edu
Date: 2/10/2006
Time: 5:24:24 PM

Comments

Dear Chris, You may wish to add to your bibliography an article I have written: "Two Indo-Scythian Mints of the Western Punjab," Revue Numismatique 157 (2001): 251-286, pls. xxv-xxvi. Thank you for considering this submission, Jeff Lerner


Name: betty ebaugh
Email: bebaugh@sprynet.com
Date: 2/5/2006
Time: 2:46:07 PM

Comments

i am looking for the meaning of the word "akkad". it must be close to "water" or "aqua" how can i find this thank you


Name: betty ebaugh
Email: bebaugh@sprynet.com
Date: 2/5/2006
Time: 2:45:55 PM

Comments

i am looking for the meaning of the word "akkad". it must be close to "water" or "aqua" how can i find this thank you


Name: Robert Adams
Email: admsrbrt@aol.com
Date: 1/24/2006
Time: 6:42:52 PM

Comments

I've found this site a wealth of information and refer to it often as a resource for the novel I am writing (in which a Parthain coin is central). I have a question, however. concerning the "royal wart," i.e., is this physical (really a wart) or something symbolic on the forehead of Parthian kings? thank you for any help you may be able to provide.


Name: Frank Johnson
Email: asd8738@isd-media.com
Date: 1/4/2006
Time: 4:54:00 AM

Comments

Good Service


Name: sanaz tehrani
Email: www.darvishebidel
Date: 11/24/2005
Time: 5:55:20 AM

Comments

please send a copy of Parthie map


Name: sarkis
Email: sarkis_gegamyan@hotmail.com
Date: 10/26/2005
Time: 12:00:55 PM

Comments

I am looking for a silver Tigranes cion, do you have it?


Name: Lachenaud Guy
Email: guy.lachenaud@wanadoo.fr
Date: 10/2/2005
Time: 12:21:54 PM

Comments

As I am working to edit Dio Cassius, 38, 39, 40, I congratulate you for this very useful website, its huge bibliography and so on.


Name: Ray
Email: rayhami@yahoo.com
Date: 9/17/2005
Time: 9:18:32 PM

Comments

Hi, are there any coin collectors interested in a large "NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PMTR PIMP PP". On back is WRL DECVRSIO, with two horses with riders. The coin is very old and looks it NERO and the writing is clear. What would a collector pay for this coin?


Name: John Boyle
Email: jboyle@csuchico.edu
Date: 7/7/2005
Time: 6:03:00 PM

Comments

First of all thanks very much for this splendid Parthia.com website. It's obvious how much time and expertise has gone into its production and the result is a gem! I don't know if you have time for a specific and rather technical question but I'll ask anyway--just in case you do. My question has to do with Osroes II and Aramaic. I gather that Osroes II is a somewhat shaky figure in the list of Parthian kings. And that one factor which apparently gives him some credibility is that his name appears in Aramaic on some of the coins. In the top row of characters on the Reverse. I just purchased one recently and it has a nice, visible top line of alphabet letters described by the seller (Forum Coins) as Aramaic. It's exactly like some of the coins in your listing of Osroes II. My question is: are these really Aramaic alphabet letters? I've consulted several sources which give tables of the Aramaic alphabet and they don't seem to match the letters on the Reverse (top row) of the Osroes coins (either mine or the similar ones in your list). The third character from the left for example looks exactly like the Latin letter for X but that seems to have no counterpart in the Aramaic alphabet listings I've seen. So, do you think it says "OSROES" in Aramaic? Thanks for your interest. John Boyle


Name: amir
Email: amir_ahaf@yahoo.com
Date: 7/7/2005
Time: 2:10:26 PM

Comments

Please add "persian language" in your optional languages for this website . nowadays , "Persian" is prime language in anciant parhian lands and "Parthia" was an important era for Iranian Peopels . regards tehran _ Iran


Name:
Email:
Date: 7/3/2005
Time: 10:02:35 AM

Comments

I think that you did a great job on this web site. I think that you should focus some on Parthian acomplishments and thier military success in defending thier homeland. Also, I think you should tell Alexander's impact on the empire. Over all though you did a fantastic job.


Name: Virgil
Email:
Date: 6/27/2005
Time: 2:09:58 PM

Comments

Parthia was never conquered it says on the history page. That's not quite true, the Romans sacked the Parthian capital twice, something you didn't mention. The second time, under Severus, so much treasure was taken back to Rome that it resulted in the decline of Parthia.


Name: ANGEL SAINZ
Email: angelsainzcosta@yahoo.com
Date: 6/22/2005
Time: 3:14:02 PM

Comments

I'M INTERESTED IN PURSHASING A TETRADRACMA OF VELLON OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN NERON'S TIMES. ANYONE WHO READS THIS MESSAGE PLEASE CONTACT ME A.S.A.P.


Name: Billy Favis
Email: billy.favis@bedbath.com
Date: 5/19/2005
Time: 10:34:30 AM

Comments

Being able to drag to map around was cool! How did you do that?


Name: Winkelmann Sylvia
Email: winkelmann@orientarch.uni-halle.de
Date: 5/17/2005
Time: 9:25:23 AM

Comments

I would like to inform you about two new publications on Parthian weaponry:

1. Sylvia Winkelmann, "Eurasisches in Hatra? Ergebnisse und Probleme bei der Analyse partherzeitlicher Bildquellen." In: Orientwissenschaftliche Hefte 9/2003 (=Mitteilungen des SFB "Different und Integration" 4/1) Nomaden und Seßhafte - Fragen, Methoden, Ergebnisse, Halle/Saale, pp. 21-140, 27 fig.

2. Sylvia Winkelmann, Katalog der parthischen Waffen und Waffenträger aus Hatra, Halle/Saale 2004 (= Materialien des SFB "Differenz und Integration" Vol. IV/2004), 352 p., 137 fig.

3. In print: Sylvia Winkelmann, Partherzeitliche Waffen in Kommagene

All publications deal with the question of nomadic influence on Parthian weapons and give evidence on the Eurasian origin of Parthian swords, daggers and bow.


Name: devadas menon
Email: dmenon@pacific.net.sg
Date: 5/11/2005
Time: 9:13:53 AM

Comments

Gold Coin of Septimius Severus I noticed that your site does not have the obverse and reverse combination of a gold coin of Septimius Severus I possess. The obverse is Septimius Severus with the inscription SEVERUS PIVJ AVG, the reverse is VICTORIA ....AVGG and depicts a chariot with two horses, with a whip in right hand. I would like to share the picture of this coin for putting in your site. thank you and regds..devadas


Name: Khademi Nadooshan
Email: parisakh2002@yahoo.com
Date: 5/8/2005
Time: 8:24:38 AM

Comments

Dear Hopkins With best regards As I am the member of your site and regularly study your discussion. I would like to congragulate you as really a scholarly discussion which are aong the members. I would like to bring to notice as I try to see the Parthian coins in the Museum of Meshkin Shahr in Ardabil province I have seen a parthian coins which its flan were from copper and plated by the silver and was verry similar with official issues as possibly were issued or minted by dies, As the forgery coins of Parthian are verry common in Iran and several Parthian coins were made of forgery the plating coins were not known to forgers as in several coins which I have seen in the museum. It is possinly those coins of parthian coins which plated, that the kings era were in trouble and it is not observable in all the parthian coins, or may possibly the plating were done but due to several factors like unbroken of plating silver ( because in Meshkin Shahr silver plating were broken and copper flan are observable by eyes we observe it is plating may other Parthian coins are plated but we did not observe them. We nearly a year try to put the coins in XRF spectroscopy to see the copper flan were made from same sources of copper which were used for Parthian copper coins and silver plating the sources were from same silver which used for coinage and hope to be able in near futher to finish this labratory investigation. finally my observation is that plating did not done by the today's forgers as platting are nore difficult till cast forgery or dies minting as my self see the dies of Alexander coins which forger were used for forging of Alexander silver Tetradrachms. or darius coins were forged. I would like to have replay and your openion. Khademi Nadooshan


Name:
Email:
Date: 5/5/2005
Time: 4:06:50 PM

Comments

Gabae is where Antiochus IV died; his father, Antiochus III, died somewhere in Elam (Elymais) in 187.


Name: Farshid Shokrkon
Email: farshidwww@yahoo.com
Date: 5/3/2005
Time: 10:37:57 AM

Comments

Dear Chris I wrote you a comment (in feed back) about name of "Persian Gulf" and I wanted to answer my question. But you don't do it till now. Please answer my question.


Name: olu ego
Email:
Date: 4/25/2005
Time: 5:45:24 PM

Comments

love lly


Name: bijan
Email: bijan_haghighi@yahoo.com
Date: 4/12/2005
Time: 5:54:14 AM

Comments

Chris, Great website. I really enjoyed all informations ...is this possible to make a new site about Sasanian Empire & Median and Achæmenid Empire of Iran like this site?.....thank you & best regards


Name: Jeff Clark
Email: voyager2be@aol.com
Date: 4/11/2005
Time: 12:17:41 PM

Comments

Hello Chris, I was just doing a search for Probus Vota coinage and this coin popped up on your site. RIC3 1487 (Enlarged) sestertius L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX / TR VOT IMP V COS III While it does look considerably like a V in TR VOT IMP.... I am quite sure that it is a P and the correct legend is TR POT IMP. You can see a little bit of the curl on the right side of the V back toward the left and the bottom right side of the V peters out and gets too skinny. So, I am afraid it is just a sloppily rendered P rather than a new type that I must search for. Well, I see the coin is in Wildwinds too and it is listed with the P. Probably just a typo huh? Oh well, it was fun to look at. Thanks, Jeff


Name: Farshid Shokrkon
Email: farshidwww@yahoo.com
Date: 3/23/2005
Time: 10:24:29 AM

Comments

Dear Chris Hopkins

Hello! I'm an Iranian and I love the history of my country. At first, I should thank you for your efforts concerning dissemination of information about the history of my country. But I have a friendly complaint about a piece of information you have presented about the famous "Persian gulf" in your technical archaeological internet site. In your "Interactive map of Parthia" you have called "Persian Gulf" "The Gulf". As you might know, attemps have been made recently by some Arab bigots to change the historical name of "Persian Gulf" to "Arabian Gulf" or to "The Gulf". But what is strange to me is that why a knowledgeable person such as you have fallen in their trap! They don't have any historical document for their claims. In historical maps and writings of Greeks and Romans this gulf is called "Persicus Sinus" and "Persicum Mare" and as you know they mean Persian sea, and in historical Islamic and Arabic maps and writings it is called الخلیج الفارسیة (=Persian gulf) or البحر الفارسیة (=Persian sea). I, as a university student, expect you to change this forged name, "The Gulf" to its historical name "Persian Gulf". Otherwise, please introduce to me ,by email, a historical document proving that the name of this body of water is "The Gulf". Thanks a lot.


Name: kashanica Foundation
Email: info@kashanica.com
Date: 3/16/2005
Time: 5:37:42 AM

Comments

Good Job! Have you any picture of following travelers to Iran: 1-Olivier, G. A 2-Sercey, E. de 3-Bibesco 4-Henry Rene Dalmani 5-Jane Dieulafoy 6-Alfons Gabriel 7-Walter Hinz 8-Williams Jackson 9-De Bode If any body have a high resolution image or portrait of them we'll buy. Regards 


Name: Afsan Azadi
Email: afsanazadi@yahoo.com
Date: 3/8/2005
Time: 2:08:00 PM

Comments

Please check out my site and my new book: www.afsanazadi.com Best wishes, Afsan Azadi


Name: David MacDonald
Email: djmacdo@ilstu.edu
Date: 3/1/2005
Time: 8:34:34 PM

Comments

I noticed a typographical error: "Coins of Romae About Parthia: Hadrian (A.D. 98-117)" Of course, the typographical error is the duplication of Trajan's dates from the previous page for Hadrian's dates of 117-138. A minor matter, but thought you would want to know.


Name: D Tabrizi
Email: davoud1327@aol.com
Date: 2/28/2005
Time: 6:17:35 AM

Comments

deep Persian past needs yet to be discovered, but what we have got could be a solid platform. well done


Name: gina
Email: bbredice@pacbell.net
Date: 2/25/2005
Time: 2:44:13 PM

Comments

I have four coins, were can I get the value if any on them? Thanks


Name: Fatema Soudavar Farmanfarmaian
Email: Fsoudavar@aol.com
Date: 2/9/2005
Time: 1:17:25 PM

Comments

I would like to refer you to the website of lmei.soas.ac.uk , Home page, Notices (Look under The Idea of Iran, to view the list of upcoming lectures in London on the Parthian era within the framework of the annual lecture series of the Soudavar Foundation on the history of Iran. Each of the lecture series will later come out in book format.


Name: Chuck Ortego
Email: ancientgifts@att.net
Date: 12/21/2004
Time: 10:33:30 PM

Comments

if you'd like images of bmc 484/487 i have them. my father in law gave you images once.


Name:
Email:
Date: 12/8/2004
Time: 5:31:57 PM

Comments

So wait, sigma is the number six in greek or is it stigma? If Stigma is S and there was no sigma until the middle ages, then why is there sigma now? Are you saying that sigma is a letter and stigma is a number? But that there was no sigma until the middle ages? I'm confused. I'm reading this book. It says: The number 6 was stamped on the old mysteries. The great secret symbol consisted of the three letters SSS, because the letter S in the Greek alphabet was the symbol of the figure 6... but when it came to 6, another letter was introduced! Not the next--the sixth letter (Z, zeta)--but a different letter, a peculiar form of S, called "stigma" (s). So what's going on here? My book uses stigma as a lowercase (s). And then S is just the letter in the Greek alphabet that was the symbol of the figure 6. How can you have a letter in an alphabet that's the symbol of a number?


Name: Jean T
Email: jeanthom@juno.com
Date: 11/23/2004
Time: 10:59:28 AM

Comments

I am trying to look at www.parthia.com/public/silk road/kkh.htm but I get the Page cannot be displayed script. This was a trip taken by Gaby Greenwald last summer. Please tell me how to reach this page.

----------------
[Editor's note: the correct address is http://parthia.com/public/silk_road_kkh.htm]


Name: Mike Goodman
Email: mike.goodman@gmail.com
Date: 11/21/2004
Time: 1:09:20 PM

Comments

I found this reference on your web page (http://www.parthia.com/webreport_49.htm but cannot find this resource on the internet. It sounds like it would be very interesting to read but I don't know how to find it. I would be grateful for any help you could provide. Tucci, James M. The Battle of Carrhae: the effects of a military disaster on the Roman Empire (1992) Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri-Columbia, 1992, ii+62 p. Abstract: Typescript. Thesis (M.A)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 1992. Microfilm. Columbia, Mo. : University of Missouri-Columbia, 1992.


Name: David Powell
Email: dmpowell@waitrose.com
Date: 11/14/2004
Time: 10:01:35 AM

Comments

Suggest you may like to add "Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation", by F.R. Stephenson {Camb. Univ. Press, 1997} to your reference book list. The theme of the work is to compare calculations of when celestial events should have occurred to actual historical descriptions of when they did occur, with a view to examining the change in the speed of earth's rotation over time. Chapters 6 and 7 contain numerous references dated in the Seleucid calendar which relate given months and days in the latter to those in the modern Western equivalent. A couple of these chance to refer to the embolismic month.


Name: Bengt Holmgren
Email: bholmgre@tampabay.rr.com
Date: 9/17/2004
Time: 10:37:29 AM

Comments

This is great work. I have been looking for these fonts all over. I hope they will be implemented in Unicode ASAP. I can not find any link to download latest version. Only the Beta is available. How do I get the latest one?


Name: Tom Gomez
Email: mezzz1957@yahoo.com
Date: 9/4/2004
Time: 6:47:45 PM

Comments

Well, I watched the History Channel's recreation of the battle of Carrhae last night. I thought that it was a reasonably accurate reflection of Plutarch's account of the events of May 6, 53 B.C.(E). However, I am under the (perhaps mistaken) impression that the term "cataphract" was applied to a Parthian mounted archer, while the term "clibinarius" referred to the Parthian mailed "heavy" cavalryman. The documentary seemed, from my perspective, to have misapplied the term "cataphract," among other errors... I would appreciate it if any of the scholars on this site could clear up my (or the History Channel's) confusion about the term "cataphract." And I would welcome any further discussion from members about the documentary, Carrhae, or Parthian military strategy and tactics in general. Thank you, Tom Gomez PS Readers of the Zend-Avesta will appreciate why a person with my last name was bound to become a Parthianophile!


Name: George Badey
Email: gbadey@cs.com
Date: 9/3/2004
Time: 4:21:30 PM

Comments

I have what appears to be a very old coin which I purchased in Iran in 1962. How can I determine whether this coin is real or fake? It seems that many of these old coins are not worth much when I check on ebay! Can you help me? Thanks.


Name: Lisa
Email: augustinestribe@aol.com
Date: 7/22/2004
Time: 6:30:07 PM

Comments

I have a question about the Parthian calender and the information contributed by Dr. Assar. How does this calender compare or contrast to the Hebrew calender for the civil and sacred years? They have 2 seperate calenders and one starts in the Fall and one starts in the Spring.


Name: Salvatore Conte
Email: conte@queendido.org
Date: 7/22/2004
Time: 6:50:28 AM

Comments

Your site is so interesting! Can you provide more informations about Queen Dido's coins? What do you think about female head over most of Carthaginian coins? Tanit, Dido, or Demetra? Thank you very much. Please take a look on my website: http://www.queendido.org/


Name: Giusto Traina
Email: giusto.traina@unile.it
Date: 7/21/2004
Time: 6:40:49 AM

Comments

Dear Sir, I would like to add my own bibliography. Sincerely, gt G. Traina, “Materiali per un commento a Movses Xorenac‘i, Patmut‘iwn Hayoc‘: I”, Le Muséon 108 (1995), 279-333. G. Traina, review of E. Kettenhofen, Tirdad und die Inschrift von Paikuli, “Mesopotamia” 31 (1996), 308-11. G. Traina, “Sulla fortuna di Domizio Corbulone”, in A. Valvo, C. Stella (a c. di) Studi in onore di Albino Garzetti, Brescia: Ateneo di Brescia 1996, 491-503. G. Traina, “Archivi armeni e mesopotamici. La testimonianza di Movses Xorenac‘i”, in M.F. Boussac, A. Invernizzi (a c. di), Archives et Sceaux du monde hellénistique, BCH Suppl. 29 (1996) [1997], 349-63. G. Traina, “Note classico-orientali 1-3”, Acta Orientalia Hungariae 50 (1997), 291-9. G. Traina, “Materiali per un commento a Movses Xorenac‘i, Patmut‘iwn Hayoc‘: II”, Le Muséon 111 (1998), 95-138 G. Traina, “Rostovcev e l’epigrafia greco-latina dell’Armenia antica”, in A. Marcone (ed.i), Rostovcev e l’Italia, Atti del Convegno (Gubbio 1996), Napoli: ESI 1999, 441-8. G. Traina, (ed.), Studi sull'XI libro dei <em>Geographika</em> di Strabone, Congedo: Galatina 2001. G. Traina , “Mosé di Khoren II 49, Mitridate di Pergamo e gli ebrei”, in R.B. Finazzi, A. Valvo (a c. di), Pensiero e istituzioni del mondo classico nelle culture del Vicino Oriente, Ed. dell’Orso: Alessandria 2001, 297-303 “Hellenism in the East: some historiographical remarks”, Electrum 6 (2001), 15-24. Review of M. Bais, Albania caucasica, Milano 2001, Le Muséon 115 (2002), 228-37.


Name: Diana Tsirunova
Email: diana_ts@hotmail.com
Date: 7/3/2004
Time: 8:34:45 PM

Comments

I was not able to find a link from your site to "Parthians in Nineveh: Identifying a Nomadic Administration" website - http://parthia.com/nineveh The "Parthians in Nineveh" project was developed by archaeologist Dr. Murray Eiland III. And I am web developer of this project. It would be nice to see direct link to this project from your parthia.com (the cross link from "Parthians in Nineveh" site already exists). Thank you for cooperation.


Name: test
Email: test
Date: 6/22/2004
Time: 7:27:14 AM

Comments

test


Name: Al Kowsky
Email: AlfredKowsky@aol.com
Date: 5/22/2004
Time: 6:16:33 PM

Comments

I found your web site to be a treasure filled oasis, with a wealth of information. The collection of photos is an important contribution in itself. Most of us know little or nothing about this culture, your web site changes that.


Name: Sasan
Email: zevaleaghl@yahoo.com
Date: 5/20/2004
Time: 6:37:25 PM

Comments

Thank you for your site and your perseverance. Pictures for your site. Thank you.

http://www.pix8.net/getimg.php?img=elymais or persis.jpg
http://www.pix8.net/getimg.php?img=arsacaes01.jpg
http://www.pix8.net/getimg.php?img=phriapatus.jpg
http://www.pix8.net/getimg.php?img=orod.jpg
http://www.pix8.net/getimg.php?img=elymais 01.jpg

Attribution for you bye


Name: Pam Eveline
Email: pam_eveline@mpcds.com
Date: 5/18/2004
Time: 5:11:35 PM

Comments

Where there any significant walls or divisions between people in the Parthian Empire? Similar to the wall that has just been build between the Israel and Palestine.


Name: Andrzej Polkowski
Email: andrzej.polkowski@neostrada.pl
Date: 5/1/2004
Time: 5:23:24 AM

Comments

You say that there are no coins of Tiridates II. But McDowell in "Coins of Seleucia" says there are his tetradrachmas minted in this city about 26-25 BC, among them the coins with the unique legend FILOROMAIO


Name: Maria
Email: m.gratschew@idea.int
Date: 4/20/2004
Time: 9:58:33 AM

Comments

Hello! I am trying to find the exact location of Nisa on a map, but have no success. Can you please assist, which is the largest neighbouring city? Thank you, Maria


Name: zia
Email: zia905@hotmail.com
Date: 3/27/2004
Time: 9:07:13 AM

Comments

there is a mistake on the PARTHIA map "the gulf" must be substitute" Persain gulf"


Name: Phil Adamsak
Email: Phila77808@aol.com
Date: 3/22/2004
Time: 6:29:00 PM

Comments

I have been following Persian history since working in Masjid Sulaiman in the 1950s, and enjoy your site. I have a number of coins, silver, brass and electrum, from the MIS area and from the Ahwaz bazaar.


Name: David Thomas
Email: david.thomas@agmd.org
Date: 3/8/2004
Time: 4:46:56 PM

Comments

I can't believe that you've made this site: Really tremendous. Can you direct me regarding a specific question? I need help understanding the multiple-banded diadems on Parthian coins. Did the multiple bands have anything to do with the Persian title "king of kings"? I.e. one band =king, while ultiple bands symbolizes a king over other kings?


Name: Q
Email:
Date: 2/27/2004
Time: 2:55:12 AM

Comments

Marvelous resource on the Parthian Period. Here are a couple of more resources on ancient Iran:
History of Iran
WWW-VL HISTORY: IRAN
Pars Times


Name: agnes korn
Email: a.korn@em.uni-frankfurt.de
Date: 2/4/2004
Time: 4:43:38 AM

Comments

thanks for the wonderful pages!!! Some additions for the bibliography: more recent works by Sundermann (cf. http://www.bbaw.de/forschung/turfanforschung/BiblSundermann.pdf works by Durkin-Meisterenst (cf. http://www.bbaw.de/forschung/turfanforschung/BiblDDM.pdf Colditz 2000 (cf. http://www.fu-berlin.de/iranistik/iranica.html Best wishes! Agnes Korn


Name: librarius.net
Email: librarius.net
Date: 2/3/2004
Time: 6:55:05 AM

Comments

Madame, Monsieur
Ce petit mail pour vous inviter à visiter http://www.librarius.net/ (la librairie de l'Antiquité gréco-romaine sur internet uniquement)
Salutations respectueuses
La librairie

http://www.librarius.net/
http://www.ancient-worlds.net/
La librairie de l'Antiquité gréco-romaine sur internet
9, rue de gournay
77360 Vaires sur marne
FRANCE RCS 449 522 028 MEAUX


Name: Bahram Gharadaghi
Email: gharadag@yahoo.co.uk
Date: 2/1/2004
Time: 12:49:05 PM

Comments

I would ask for a few pharse of Dari langeues spoken in Ctisiphon by Seleucia rules . Thanks a lot!


Name: rob dillon
Email: rdillon@semo.edu
Date: 1/21/2004
Time: 4:07:40 PM
 

Comments

to continue--bear with me--there was and is no "standard" military code EXCEPT the "civil" codes and laws first established during the later edo period. i am looking hard for info on the horses used in japan. any help? the article was quite useful but needs tweeking in the area of japanese military history.


Name: rob dillon
Email: rdillon@semo.edu
Date: 1/21/2004
Time: 4:04:33 PM
 

Comments

yabusame has been as much influenced by pre-feudal mounted hunting and the sport of dog shooting (in its last gasp using only blunted arrows) as by military traditions. also the term "bushido" was coined and used WAY after the early period in which warriorship was called kyuba no michi ("the way of the bow and the horse.") bushido is a modern notion.


Name: houman dehdashti
Email: houman73@yahoo.com
Date: 1/6/2004
Time: 12:59:36 PM
 

Comments

this is a great site; but it gives an impression that parthia is name of a country. parthia is in fact name of a state of iran which happens to be the state of which the royal family (ashkani) happened to be from. In my opinion it is more correct to say parthian period or ashkanian period of empire of iran. thanks again for your wonderful site. houman


Name: yavar
Email: kohestan_y
Date: 1/6/2004
Time: 12:22:01 PM
 

Comments

salam


Name: Farhan Khan
Email: asce_2001@yahoo.com
Date: 12/29/2003
Time: 9:18:14 PM

Comments

Thanx for making such an incredible and well researched site on Parthian history and civilization. I really enjoyed reading it. Please do send me some other web sites about other civilizations specially about Persian, Carthagininian, and Mesopotamian. Once again Thanx alot Farhan Khan Karachi, Pakistan


Name: A.H.Abawi
Email: hadi_abawi@hotmail.com
Date: 12/29/2003
Time: 9:30:09 AM

Comments

sir, In fact I have a question rather than a comment if you kindly help me to find an answer: In some old books we find only FARS as the name of Iran and it looks that Iran as a new name for that country ! Then what are the defferences ( geografically / historically ) between Fars and Iran ? B.regards


Name: A.H.Abawi
Email: hadi_abawi@hotmail.com
Date: 12/29/2003
Time: 9:28:53 AM

Comments

sir, In fact I have a question rather than a comment if you kindly help me to find an answer: In some old books we find only FARS as the name of Iran and it looks that Iran as a new name for that country ! Then what are the defferences ( geografically / historically ) between Fars and Iran ? B.regards


Name: Roger deWardt Lane
Email: dewardt@earthlink.com
Date: 12/5/2003
Time: 8:29:47 AM

Comments

You are so right about - busy backgrounds on web sites. What do you think about music? I have a button to turn it off on one of my pages. Check out a fellow numismatist site, not anyway as good as yours. www.geocities.com/dewardt Keep up the excellany advice for us. Roger


Name:
Email: cnelson7379@aol.com
Date: 10/19/2003
Time: 10:57:08 PM

Comments

Hi, I have a Parthia Kings coin with a bust of Artabanus II. After examining information on this site I am still not sure if in fact the coin is a fogery. My coin has a worn face and back side, whereas some of the high releif areas have been flattened. The coin is oblong in shape and not very thick and approximately 5/8" wide. It feels quite heavy for its size and appears to be made of bronze. Is there anyone who might be able to help me in identifying the authenticity of this coin? Your comments would be most helpful. I could also provide photos via e-mail. Thanks.


Name: Alan Lesko
Email: romad119@yahoo.com
Date: 8/29/2003
Time: 8:08:05 AM

Comments

I am currently stationed in Afghanistan. They hold a weekly bazaar that has some old coins. One person said that the ones with 2 faces were good for collecting, especially if the faces faced each other. Alot of these are silver with lettering similiar to ones on your site. The faces seem more greek in their appearance (rounded classic features) They also have silver british, indian and russian coinage from last 2 centuries. Have any info on these? Anything special i should look for?


Name: Anthony F. Milavic
Email: MAJUSMCRET@aol.com
Date: 8/11/2003
Time: 2:24:59 PM

Comments

Kerry Wetterstrom referred me. I need an ancient Greek font set. Kerry said you had such a thing for ancient Greek coins. Collector of Agonistic coins


Name: Bear
Email:
Date: 7/26/2003
Time: 11:57:04 PM

Comments

this site is to onesided they say nothing about when the parthian king attacked the romans and was defeated and killed after the battle of carhae


Name: Suzanne Charlé
Email: Suzannecharle@hotmail.com
Date: 7/23/2003
Time: 12:03:21 AM

Comments

For your archives, a story on cylinder seals I wrote for the NYTimes:

The New York Times, July 18, 2003, 1302 words
Late Edition - Final , Section E , Page 34 , Column 3

ANTIQUES

Tiny Treasures Leave Big Void in Looted Iraq

By SUZANNE CHARLÉ

While there is still confusion about just how many objects were stolen from the Iraq Museum in Baghdad during the recent war, there is no doubt that one of its major collections is gone. In London last week, at an annual meeting of experts in archaeology, history and ancient languages of Mesopotamia, the museum's director, Dr. Nawala al-Mutawalli, said that 4,795 cylinder seals were missing. Col. Matthew Bogdanos of the Marines, leader of the American team investigating losses of antiquities in Iraq, confirmed the theft. "It is a major loss," said McGuire Gibson, professor of Mesopotamian archaeology at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, who worked at Iraqi sites from 1964 to 1990. "This is, or was, one of the world's really superb collections." The seals are small, typically one and a half to four inches tall and usually less than two inches in diameter. Figures and inscriptions are carved or cut, so that when the cylinders are rolled on clay, miniature scenes scroll out: ceremonies at temples, feasts at palaces, battles between gods and beasts. Impressions were made on clay used to seal goods and official documents, even to secure rooms. Seals were worn and passed from one generation to the next. They are typically made of stone — lapis lazuli, agate, hematite, white marble, rock crystal — and date from the fifth millennium B.C. to the second century A.D. Revered by scholars for what they tell about life in Mesopotamia, the seals are also prized by collectors for their beauty and for the special skill required to make them. One seal sold at Christie's in New York in 2001 for $424,000. An even greater loss, experts say, is cylinder seals and other antiquities being looted from Iraq's archaeological sites. "Every day thousands of the objects are being stolen," said Mr. Gibson, who was in Iraq in May working for Unesco as part of a team of specialists to assess the damage in Baghdad and for National Geographic as part of a team sent to examine damage to sites across Iraq. At five sites he visited, hundreds of people were digging, filling trucks. "Looting has become an industry," Mr. Gibson said. "We'll never know exactly where the seals are from, and because they're not cataloged, forgeries are possible." Before the 1991 Persian Gulf war there was little illegal digging in Iraq, Mr. Gibson said; the antiquities department had more than 1,000 employees, including guards, stationed at sites, and Iraqi law banned export of antiquities. Seals rarely appeared on the market. After the United Nations imposed an economic embargo against Iraq in 1990, the nation's economy collapsed, and the museum's employees were drastically cut. Regional museums alone lost a total of 2,000 to 4,000 objects. Concurrently, Mr. Gibson said, interest in cylinder seals jumped with the sale of the Erlenmeyer collection, assembled by a distinguished scholar, from the 1940's until his death in 1967. John M. Russell, chairman of the critical studies department at Massachusetts College of Art, said thousands of seals have been bought since then, adding that he thought most had fake provenances. Mr. Russell and Mr. Gibson said they expected the truly remarkable pieces to be withheld from the market until the authorities and the public lost interest. "It's just too hot now," Mr. Russell said. But they have little doubt that eventually many will end up for sale. Mr. Gibson said: "They are most desired; many are exquisitely beautiful. They're like jewelry, and they're treated like jewelry." Cylinder seals are ranked No. 3 on the International Council of Museums' Emergency Red List of Iraqi Antiquities at Risk, compiled in the spring. "In terms of real demand, they're most endangered," said Mr. Russell, who helped compile the list. One recent day, during a casual look on eBay , Mr. Russell found one seal that he said was counterfeit, and two others that could easily have been looted from Iraq. Only one dealer responded to a request for provenance, saying that as usual there was none. "There's a huge black market, and pieces come up everywhere, from the top auction houses to eBay," Mr. Russell said. In times like these, he said, the only sure way to know that a cylinder seal has not been looted or stolen is to have the sales history, with a description of the seal and a picture in a catalog dated before 1990. An ethical collector would put that cutoff at 1970, the year a Unesco convention declaring all objects that entered the antiquities market since then to be stolen property. There is some hope of recovering the museum seals. "Luckily, many of the seals that were stolen from the Iraq Museum came from excavations, and there are photos and even casts of them," Mr. Gibson said. "We are on the lookout for things, and occasionally something gets spotted, but under current legislation, there is such a long, arduous road to get any of them back that customs and other authorities can do little." In June British authorities made it illegal to import, export, sell, own or handle cultural heritage property taken from Iraq since August 1990. Most important, the burden of proof of legal provenance is on the holder of the property. In the United States, a leading market for antiquities, the government must prove that seals came from Iraq before they can be seized, a huge challenge. Legal experts and the Archaeological Institute of America say the adoption of the Iraq Cultural Heritage Protection Act, pending before the House, would extend indefinitely the temporary import restrictions on undocumented archaeological and cultural materials illegally removed from Iraq since August 1990. (The institute rejects the Senate version, which limits restrictions to a year.) It is a bittersweet time for scholars at the University of Chicago: while they are helping their Iraqi colleagues, they are also anticipating the reopening on Oct. 18 of the Oriental Institute Museum's Mesopotamia gallery there, closed since 1997. The institute's collection of more than 1,000 cylinder seals is based primarily on finds from university-sponsored excavations in Iraq. From the 1920's to 1969 about half the seals discovered in the digs went to the university; the rest went to the Iraq Museum, and now they are gone. A main exhibition in the 5,400-square-foot hall will be 183 cylinder seals. "It might be the only installation that examines how the seals were used, how they were made and how they were worn," said Karen L. Wilson, the museum's director. One star is the Bilalama seal, made of dark blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and topped with a gold cap. In a monograph, Clemens Reichel, a research associate at the Oriental Institute, notes that according to the cuneiform legend, the seal originally belonged to a ruler of Eshnunna, a powerful city-state in Mesopotamia, circa 2010 B.C. The seal was stolen from an excavation in 1931 but was soon recovered from an antiquities dealer in Baghdad. Its context and proof of authenticity could have been lost forever; luckily, the excavation yielded three clay lumps with impressions of the Bilalama seal. There are only four examples of both a seal and its original ancient impression. (Most seals are displayed with a new impression, the better to show the scene.) Only the Oriental Institute owns both a seal and its ancient impression. "We were lucky with the Bilalama seal," Mr. Reichel said. "But think of all the precious stories we're losing every day."


Name: Parthenia Leal
Email: augi3@hotmail.com
Date: 6/19/2003
Time: 11:54:14 AM

Comments

Oddly enough my name is quite similar to the Parthians and my husband is named Roman. How weird is this? Parthenia 06-19-03


Name: behrooz
Email:
Date: 6/17/2003
Time: 5:05:45 AM

Comments

Once and for all lets hear your explanation as to why your "historical persian map" refers to the persian gulf as the gulf. I have a strong feeling it is not only a type error. Here is your chance.


Name:
Email: sergepetiot@yahoo.co.uk
Date: 6/13/2003
Time: 8:02:15 AM

Comments

Dear Sir, Thank you for a very informative site. I happen to be an expat working in Iran and recently aquired 111 copper coins mostly orodes 1, 2 and phraates (according to your site). However, the vast majority of the coins vary from the ones on your web site, even though the kings are easily identifiable. If you would like to get the pictures of these coins, drop me a mail.


Name: Stanford Mommaerts-Browne
Email: smommss@tiscali.it
Date: 6/8/2003
Time: 11:06:23 PM

Comments

This site is very good; but it is a MAJOR disapointment that Dr. Suren-Pahlav's pages on the Sure-Pahlav family has disappeared, or been removed! Also, an interesting thesis, (by no means new), can be found extrapolated at: http://www.iranian.com/History/2003/May/Pallava/index.html If borne out, it would constitute a partial link in tracing a Parthian origin for HM Norodom Sihanouk, since the Pallava dynasty of So. India was the probable source of his ancestors, the great emperors of Angkor Wat & Angkor Thom of the Medieval Khmer empire.


Name: beverley davis
Email: bjb_75149@hotmail.com
Date: 4/29/2003
Time: 1:08:56 PM

Comments

Greetings! The information the Japanase individual has is extremely interesting. Perhaps a contact could make it available for our sight in an easier to understand way. As for Rome...the value in the Roman connecton was the exchange of ideas. Too bad some people can't grasp that concept.


Name: Yasuyuki Mitsuma
Email: licorne@soleil.ocn.ne.jp
Date: 4/28/2003
Time: 2:45:48 AM

Comments

I recently wrote the paper about Seleucid and Arshakid (Arsacid) rule in Babylonia (in Japanese). Its english title and summary are as follows: MITSUMA Yasuyuki, The Official Posts of Generals in Seleucid and Arshakid Babylonia, Oriento (Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan)45, 2002, 26-55. Summary: The aim of the present paper is to clarify the functions of three types of generals who often appear in descriptions of historical events in the "Astronomical Diaries [A. J. Sachs/ H. Hunger [eds.], Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia, Vols.1-3, Wien, 1988-1996]" under Seleucid (305/4-141/0 B.C.) and early Arshakid (141/0-61/0 B.C.) rule: "the General (of Akkad)": LB lu2GAL u2-qu / u2-qa or lu2GAL ERIN2-ni / ERIN2mesh (kurURIki); "the General who is above the Four Generals": LB lu2GAL ERIN2mesh sha2 ana UGU 4 lu2GAL ERIN2mesh (with variants); and "the Chief of the Troops": LB lu2GAL.GAL u2-qa-a-nu / u2-qa-an. It is probable that each of these posts was occupied by only one person at any given time. The conclusions drawn in the paper may be summarised as follows: 1) The army commander in Seleucid and Aršakid Babylonia was "the General (of Akkad)", at least until the first appearance of the title "the Chief of the Troops". The corresponding official title in Greek seems to be strategos. The post was below that of "the General above the Four Generals" which is probably to be equated with "the Satrap of the East"(probably corresponding, in turn, to the Gk. ho epi ton ano satrapeion) of the Seleucid kingdom. One variant of the title for the latter "the General of Akkad who is above the Four Governors", indicates that this official controlled a number of provinces, because the word "Governor (LB lu2mu-ma-’i-ir / lu2GAL UKKIN)" here no doubt corresponds to the Gk. satrapes, the "governor" of a province (e.g. Babylonia), whereby the "Four Generals / Governors" will be the "Generals / Governors" of the provinces in the Seleucid East. The variant "the General of Akkad who is above the Four Governors / Generals" probably shows that "the General above the Four Generals" sometimes doubled as "General (of Akkad)". 2) Under Arshakid rule, some Seleucid official posts ("General [of Akkad]", "General above the Four Generals", "Governor", etc.) were preserved, but the territory controlled by "the General above the Four Generals" was probably limited only to Babylonia. One variant of the title "(Who is) above the Four Generals of Akkad" appears in 141/0 and 133/2 B.C. (used on the latter occasion in the translation of royal correspondence!). We cannot, however, find any instances in the "Diaries" where there were more than two "generals" exercising their authority concurrently in Babylonia, so that "of Akkad" in the title seems to have been added only to indicate the location of the territory and the title most probably does not reflect the actual state of affairs. 3) Between 119/8 and 112/1 B.C., the post of "the Chief of the Troops" was established replacing that of "the Satrap of the East". The bearer of this office probably exercised both military and judicial power either over Babylonia or a number of provinces including Babylonia, since in 91/0 B.C. an official whose title (partly illegible on the tablet) can be reconstructed as "the Chief of the Troops" levied an army from "the other side of the Tigris" (probably meaning "the other side from Seleucia", i.e. Ctesiphon) and went to Kar-Assur, while the existence of judges subordinate to "the Chief of the Troops" is attested to in a record from 83/2 B.C.


Name: Jinm Wagner
Email: jpw@sk.sympatico.ca
Date: 3/23/2003
Time: 12:41:02 AM

Comments

Very fascinating site. I'm confused, though. I went through Mithradates I, Arsaces, and Artabanos, and the name on the coins is always Arsaces. Why was this? Jim


Name: John Skliros
Email: jpskliros&primus.ca
Date: 3/14/2003
Time: 9:35:33 AM

Comments

Good as far as it goes-BUT- Why no continuation of Parthian Genealogy beyond 224BC? The line to Tirudates 3 is of particular interest(probably to all Christians) Please advise & ADD line to ARSACES 1 & Tiridates 1,if not the same person!


Name: Test
Email: Test
Date: 2/20/2003
Time: 8:34:04 AM

Comments

Test


Name: Robert Brenchley
Email: RSBrenchley@aol.com
Date: 2/10/2003
Time: 5:46:40 PM

Comments

I think this site is brilliant; I use it constantly to attribute coins. I hope you get the monograms page working properly soon (I know its a lot of work) since I want more info on mintmarks. I'd also like to know something about dates on coins. I'm fascinated by the development of the images on the coins, from realism to the later stylised portraits; if anyone knows anything about the artistic influences at work I'd be grateful to hear from them.


Name: Mateusz
Email: matbogu@yahoo.com
Date: 2/4/2003
Time: 6:53:01 AM

Comments

Dear Chris, your private e-mail does't work:-(( A have some scans of AE coins to schow You.


Name: this site sucks
Email:
Date: 1/6/2003
Time: 7:35:18 PM

Comments

this site SUCKS its not historicly accurate and its very pro parthian you see nothing about rome sacking the parthian capitol 4 times and parthia NEVER controled anything in israel syria or palestine this site is runed by an amature


Name: Yehshuah
Email: thane_somerville@hotmail.com
Date: 1/4/2003
Time: 12:49:27 PM

Comments

What is the authors opinion on the evidence of an Isralite occupation of the Parthian empire? It is the understanding of some that the Cyrus of the Bible along with his ruling class may indeed be of Hebrew Israelite stock.


Name: John Arabanos
Email: jarabanos@attbi.com
Date: 12/25/2002
Time: 8:36:56 PM

Comments

My last name is Arabanos. Does anyone know if there is any relation between Arabanos and Artabanus


Name: John Arabanos
Email: jarabanos@attbi.com
Date: 12/25/2002
Time: 8:36:48 PM

Comments

My last name is Arabanos. Does anyone know if there is any relation between Arabanos and Artabanus


Name: cem
Email: cemselim550@hotmail.com
Date: 12/20/2002
Time: 3:39:00 PM

Comments

luis verus sertertius 161 169 bronze gold 37.7 milimetre


Name: dr.majd juratly
Email: mjuratly@yahoo.com
Date: 12/18/2002
Time: 4:39:26 AM

Comments

dear sirs your WEB SITE is very very nice, please send to us by post more info. aand catalogs, DR.MAJD JURATLY UNITED ARAB EMIRATES DUBAI P.O.BOX 85954


Name: dr.majd juratly
Email: mjuratly@yahoo.com
Date: 12/16/2002
Time: 4:34:16 AM

Comments

pls send to us by post your catalogs. and info. best regards dr.majd juratly united arab emirates dubai p.o.box 85954


Name: william
Email: william.fitzpatrick@rbc.com
Date: 12/13/2002
Time: 1:22:30 PM

Comments

Hi. Your site looks great! I was just doing some research on macedonian calendars and I found it using google. I just had one question. I couldn't quite confirm this from your calendars section, but I needed to know when the macedonian new year begins and ends relative to the modern (solar?) calendar? the table you have looks like the macedonian new year arrives on October 1st. Is that correct? Thank you :)


Name: Paola Raffetta
Email: paola@transoxiana.org
Date: 12/10/2002
Time: 6:58:34 PM

Comments

Dear Chris, I use Linux. Navigator: Mozilla. Though I have several greek fonts and encodings available, I wasn't able to see the greek "symbol" font in <http://www.parthia.com/parthia_fonts.htm> Any suggestions will be appreciated. Best regards, Paola www.transoxiana.org


Name: dimitry
Email:
Date: 11/30/2002
Time: 11:12:24 PM

Comments

by the way, on ur Vardanes I tetra (the first coin), is the year ANT or DNT? because ANT = 351, not 354. I think its DNT, as my tetra clearly shows.


Name: Dr.Uwe Ellerbrock
Email: u.i.ellerbrock@t-online.de
Date: 11/24/2002
Time: 1:11:13 AM

Comments

wonderful pages! Lovely informations, the best I could think of to get! Dr. Ellerbrock


Name: Renzo Lucherini
Email: didacolomb@tin.it
Date: 11/22/2002
Time: 6:38:34 AM

Comments

I'm enthusiastic of your site.I'd like that you can give us more information about the parthian kings after ArtabanusI as you have done about the first. Best regards.


Name: Carol Bromberg
Email: bai34@comcast.net
Date: 11/21/2002
Time: 9:05:03 PM

Comments

Does anyone know the whereabouts of Prof. Wathiq al-Salihi, formerly at the University of Baghdad, now, I believe, in Jordan?


Name: Stephen Album
Email: album@sonic.net
Date: 11/19/2002
Time: 3:20:24 PM

Comments

Dear Everyone, Has anyone ever heard of a fake or genuine gold coin of Orodes I, based on the ordinary silver type Sellwood #31? I have been shown one with a weign of 8.375g. I would appreciate any comment. Thanks, Steve


Name: Carol Bromberg
Email: bai34@comcast.net
Date: 11/13/2002
Time: 12:20:51 PM

Comments

Dear Chris, BULLETIN OF THE ASIA INSTITUTE 13 (1999) was published in early November.There are a few articles with Parthian relevance. Best regards, Carol Bromberg _____________ [a>- = a with macron] 1. " Elamite Ula>-, Akkadian Ulaya, and Greek Choaspes: A Solution to the Eulaios Problem" Daniel T. Potts Some discussion of the epigraphic evidence from Susa of Seleucid and Parthian date relating to Susa and the name of its river. 2. "Methodological Questions in Old Persian and Parthian Epigraphy" Prods Oktor SkjaervØ [l.c. last letter] "The publication of the Parthian documents recovered at Nisa, the ancient capital of Parthia, began in the late seventies, when three volumes of plates (1976-1977-1979) and one volume of text (1977) were published. Publication then languished for a while, but picked up in the late nineties, when one more text volume was published (1998). The last two volumes of plates were published in 1998@1999. The present text volume, the third and last, concludes the publication of these materials."


Name: Rick Floot
Email: rfloot@yahoo.com
Date: 10/31/2002
Time: 11:34:25 AM

Comments

I own the following coin: ANS 1992-123-2 sestertius forgery L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX IR P VIIII / COS II Jupiter driving quadriga L; S C. Also ANS 1995-61-32 Anyone have more information about it?


Name: Mark W
Email: woodsmd@hotmail.com
Date: 10/23/2002
Time: 10:44:04 AM

Comments

Great site, the zoomable map is very nice. I recently bought my first ancient coin because of this site. The coin has Vologases IV on the obverse. Thanks, keep up the good work. Mark


Name: Sassanian
Email:
Date: 10/21/2002
Time: 5:39:55 AM

Comments

the parthians never controlled syria palestine or israel!


Name:
Email:
Date: 10/16/2002
Time: 8:52:53 PM

Comments

funny how you never mention that the romans SACKED the parthian capitol 3 times


Name: Parthia Hill
Email: parthia.m.hill@wellsfargo.com
Date: 9/4/2002
Time: 2:21:55 PM

Comments

This websit is simply awesome! Thank you for the time and detail you have put into this project. As you can see, I do have a very strong interest in this subject because of my name. Do you know what "Parthia" actually means?


Name: W.E. (Ted) Corry
Email: BTM.COR@xtra.co.nz
Date: 8/26/2002
Time: 3:05:29 AM

Comments

I sailed on the Parthia as an A.B. from 8 Nov 1956 until 20 Aug 1960, then transferring to the Carinthia on 24/9/1960 to 20/8 62. finding theses sites and seeing photos of ships is a real trip down memory lane. I now reside in New Zealand.


Name: John W. Bennett
Email: srumor65bis@aol.com
Date: 8/25/2002
Time: 10:55:53 PM

Comments

good web, but my uncle was in Iran or Saudi Arabia working for Standard oil in the late sixties, early seventys while an archaeological dig was going on and he ended up with some ancient coinage but try as hard as I can I cannot find anything like these coins ,He was told that they were ancient persian and he was the person who got these coins from the dig. Could you please help?


Name: Test
Email:
Date: 8/16/2002
Time: 3:29:43 PM

Comments

Test


Name: sorin
Email: pavel_radu_sorin@hotmail.com
Date: 6/30/2002
Time: 8:07:21 AM

Comments

what do you think about this website, it is good


Name: Hooshyar Naraghi
Email: info@Pahlavani.com
Date: 6/29/2002
Time: 9:12:43 PM

Comments

Dear Mr. Hopkins; This is to inform you we have dedicated a web site for the study of the Traditional Iranian Martial Arts (or Pahlavani). We had a link in your Links pages in 2000 but our section was inactive. We now have a permanent web site at the URL: http://www.pahlavani.com/ This old tradition shares a good part of it with the Parthian Era and the religion of Mithraism. We appreciate to have a link on your web site. As before, we have a link to Parthia web site in the reference section of our web site. Pahlavani.com web site will be launched with a new interface in the coming months. Additionally, please add our email to your mailing list using the e-mail address as info@Pahlavani.com. Thank you for your assitance and keep up the great work at Parthia.com. Regards, Hooshyar F. Naraghi Web Publisher


Name: Werner Zurek h. Szur
Email: polishnobility@web.de
Date: 6/10/2002
Time: 11:52:21 AM

Comments

Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren, ich suche polnische Adels- und Wappenliteratur. Mit freundlichem Gruß W. zurek h szur


Name: Mesterhazy, Zsolt
Email: zsolt.mesterhazy@fvm.hu
Date: 6/10/2002
Time: 3:16:23 AM

Comments

A message to Mr. Edward C. D. Hopkins I m an ancient historist, and I need a permission for some coinpictures publishing. A new book is under prepare about the history of the Roman and Parthian Wars from 53BC till 228AD. That means a publishing permission for about 15 Parthian Kings, one coinpicture of each. Thank You and God bless Your historical searchings. Mesterhazy, Zsolt, Hungary


Name: AMG
Email: ponte@netcabo.pt
Date: 6/9/2002
Time: 11:59:38 AM

Comments

Sirs, FYI, there a Ghulam Sakhi, in Islamabad, Cellphone: 0320-490-8487 offering 2 gold coins from Mithrades II, very similar those modern fakes shown on this site. He is asking $15,000 for each.


Name: sedat
Email: smahmutoğlu@muhasebat.gov.tr
Date: 4/26/2002
Time: 9:53:05 AM

Comments

bir müze gezisinde gördüğüm eski bir tarihi parada asileus asilus asile yazısını gördüm belki tam hatırlamıyorum harfler eksik veya fazla olabilir parada birde delik vardı bingölün kigı ilçesinde bulunmuştu elazıg müzesinde bu yazının ne anlama geldigini bana bildirmenizi ve tarihini belirtmenizi istiyorum saygılar


Name: smokey madpot
Email:
Date: 4/5/2002
Time: 10:09:42 PM

Comments

this web site is missing alot of things for example i wish there were the alphabets of different countries and cities or culters.It would be cool if there was because u could write different stuff but just in a different language i hope you people read this because i would really like too have the alphabets of different countries if you want to write back responding to this comment e-mail me at bgpimpn69420 it was nice writing this to you if you would write back i would apreciate it thanks.bye


Name: Joel Hettger
Email: j.hettger@att.net
Date: 3/12/2002
Time: 8:58:26 AM

Comments

PS: My old, 70-72, Peace corps photos of Iran and Afghanistan are at http://www.peacegallery.org/ follow the menu to Iran.


Name: Joel Hettger
Email: j.hettger@att.net
Date: 3/12/2002
Time: 8:56:52 AM

Comments

You have permission to use the photo of Artabanos II from Ebay. I sent you several attachments of the reverse. I currently have for sale on ebay a copper cash of the 'rebel, Ghazi Rashid, AH 1280. Kuche Mint. I wrote an article for the Celator in 1992 on Sabaean and Himyarite coinage.


Name:
Email:
Date: 3/12/2002
Time: 7:34:28 AM

Comments

Reference in Gaston Maspero's 1893 Dawn of Civilization to Pœmander, x., Parthey's edition, pp. 75, 76. Do you have this, or know where I might find it?


Name: Gemmü
Email: Bertka@t-online.de
Date: 3/4/2002
Time: 12:33:48 PM

Comments

A verry nice and informating site, and not uneasy to understand. The only Problem is, that the Altavista Translationhelp is not that good in german, so that you can kick the Translation into the Garbage.


Name: Oleg
Email: oshumay@migraph.ru
Date: 2/11/2002
Time: 6:31:47 AM

Comments

I have Parthian drachme of Orodes II (I'm sure) with monogramm 26 on reverse But I don't see similar type on this site. Can I send an image to your catalogue?


Name: Letty Rivers
Email: Rravendove@aol.com
Date: 2/4/2002
Time: 10:46:36 AM

Comments

Hello, First let me say that I really find your site helpful. I am researching for a story that I am writing and to my delite and surprise, Parthia is playing a major role. At the risk of sounding very ignorant, I didn't really have a clue as to the existance of Parthia. Ok... yes I was ignorant, lol. But now that I've discovered Parthia, I am in love! So, I just have one question that perhaps you can answer for me (I don't know if I want to join the e-mail list yet). My question: What role did Babylon play in Parthian history? What was the connection, if any? Thank you so much for your help!


Name: Mehrdad Jafari
Email: introy@spray.se
Date: 1/3/2002
Time: 7:17:41 AM

Comments

This site is great and has a wide range of intelligent about the Parthian empire and its kings. The only thing missing in this website is not having the actual persian versions of names.


Name: Yagob mohamadifar
Email: yamohamadi@yahoo.com
Date: 12/11/2001
Time: 4:06:10 PM

Comments

I am very glad to see this site.I am study Archaeology and teach it in BU-ALI-SINA university in hamedan (IRAN).Please help me abot QAL,EH-I YAZDIGIRD in western IRAN (SIR-POL-zahab). thanks for you.


Name: PARTHIS-L
Email: TEDOLDFLY@AOL.COM
Date: 12/7/2001
Time: 9:36:22 AM

Comments

Is your belief that the Middle East Religions were influenced from India? And before India, the original indigenous people were infact "Austaloids" Like Ceylon. What is Partia?


Name: Netto
Email: nettocretino@yahoo.com
Date: 11/26/2001
Time: 8:56:31 AM

Comments

Nice site.

One thing I can't figure out/find though:

About how far from Jerusalem was Parthia?


Name: john
Email:
Date: 11/25/2001
Time: 9:04:55 PM

Comments

I just wanted to say thank you for having such a comprehensive site on such a specific topic of study. I am a collector of world coins and this site has helped give me the information i needed to understand the moden day countries that the parthian empire were a part of. thank you once again


Name: Nader Rastegar
Email: NRastegar@aol.com
Date: 10/23/2001
Time: 5:03:29 PM

Comments

October 23, 2001

Dear Chris: Well Done! What you have done is quite impressive. I salute you, and I thank you for your efforts. It is a wonderful combination of Education/Entertainment! Well Done!! Please note what I have been doing in my part of woods, here in Atlanta, GA. Please visit this Site: http://www.gsu.edu/~geoamg/Page_4.html Again many thanks. This is a fantastic Site that you have created. Well Done Again!!! Nader Rastegar


Name: THORS BUDDY
Email: VIKING WACKO @AOL.COM
Date: 9/22/2001
Time: 11:27:38 AM

Comments

IS OSAMA BIN LADIN ATTEMPTING TO REVIVE THE OLD PARTHIAN EMPIRE. I NOTICE THAT WORLD ALLIANCES ARE SHIFTING IN THE DIRECTION OF ANCIENT EMPIRES? IS THE WEST NOW THE REMAINS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE? IS CHRISTIANITY NOW THREATENED BY THE DECENDANTS OF THE ANCIENT MOSELEMS?YOUR THOUGHTS PLEASE


Name: John Hill
Email: wynhill@tpg.com.au
Date: 9/13/01
Time: 9:14:42 PM

Comments

Dear All;

Thank you for the wonderful site which I have consulted many times and I thought I should finally get around to thanking those responsible for it.

I have been working for over 20 years on the history of the so-called 'Silk Routes'. I am presently in the process of completing my extensive annotations to new translations of the Chinese texts the Wei lue and the chapters from the Hou Han shu which relate to the 'Western Regions'.

I am particularly interested to discover if any of you have information on ancient routes from the region of ancient Nisa through the Koppeh Dagh mountains to the region of Kushan (Qushan) in modern Iran?

Also, does anyone know if any Han Chinese or Kushan artefacts, coins, etc., (or Jade from the region of Khotan) have been found near Nisa (or where I might find this information)?

If you have any information that might be of interest I would be most grateful if you would take the time to contact me at wynhill@tpg.com.au

Many thanks once again for your fine site.

Sincerely,

John Hill


Name: Phil Newton
Email: philnewton.@t-online.de
Date: 9/3/01
Time: 8:00:50 AM

Comments

I just wanted to mention that you have to be careful with the "Babbel Fish" translation service. I checked the German translation and it's not exactly "Hochdeutsch"! I tried Babbel Fish out on my homepage (into German) to see how good it was and it made a complete hash of it(it's hilarious in fact). Interesting site though. Good luck!


Name: Frank Kovacs
Email: frank@frankkovacs.com
Date: 9/2/01
Time: 2:36:37 PM

Comments

Do you know when Sellwood's new revision of his 1980 2nd ed. book will be published and by whom? Spinks?


Name: David Benjamin Griffith
Email: melekdavid@yahoo.ca
Date: 8/21/01
Time: 3:38:44 PM

Comments

Steven Collins recommended your site as it pertains to the whereabouts of the lost 10 tribes of Israel. It seems likely that they settled in Parthia and moved into Europe after the fall of the last dynasty.....hence the movement of the tribes under Ephraim moved into Europe. Any thoughts or comments on this?


Name: John Papapavlou
Email: John_p@hotmail.com
Date: 8/17/01
Time: 4:17:31 AM

Comments

Mr. Hopkins,

I thoroughly read through your site, and I was very impressed; enough so that I actually wanted to submit a comment and commend your work. However, I see that everyone else here did the same, so Keep up the good work!


Name: Ashkan
Email: Ashkan_prince@hotmail.com
Date: 7/28/01
Time: 1:59:10 AM

Comments

I think your site is great and gives out great info, but i lived in iran and studied this ampire and the reall name is called Ashkanian....i think you should include that some there in you info....thank you


Name: Ashkan
Email: Ashkan_prince@hotmail.com
Date: 7/28/01
Time: 1:58:39 AM

Comments

I think your site is great and gives out great info, but i lived in iran and studied this ampire and the reall name is called Ashkanian....i think you should include that some there in you info....thank you


Name: lyly
Email: vebt62@yahoo.com
Date: 7/7/01
Time: 4:51:04 AM

Comments

dear Chris Hopkins At first thank for every informition that you give us. I have problem with nomber of coins e.g sellwood 16.12 I can not understand please explain it . your faithfully lyly.


Name:
Email:
Date: 6/22/01
Time: 2:39:52 PM

Comments

Re: The term Parthia

You're buying into too many modern myths. Scythians were a mixed people and not a single tribe. They didn't even call themselves by the name we call them. They were a mix of Kurds, Assyrians and Persians. In short, they were mercenaries who banded together and fought for whoever rewarded them the best. The name we calls them 'Skythian/Sakas' simply derives from a root 'sk' which means 'arrow'. Thus they were archers. For example, in India the word 'seekh' means 'skewer' in English. It refers to a sharp instrument. Thus Skythian was not a tribal name but an army who fought with arrows and spears. They did not come from Russia or Caucasus (I have to say this).

In fact, the number of tribes I have heard of coming from Russia or the Caucasus is remarkable. Yet none of this is backed by archaeological finds. It is simply Eurocentric greed. I would like to point out that a British major who served in India, Major Soane, was given a mission to disguise himself as a Persian and then a Kurd in order to spy on Kurdish military positions and their aims. This was over a hundred years ago. He fell in love with the Kurds, spoke Hindi, Farsi and Kurdish and studied their history intensely before all the Euro-centric Aryan theories became popular in the West. In his books, Major Soane wrote what was very well known at the time - that in antiquity a vast number of Indian tribes left India and settled in Iran and Iraq. Major Soane says (these are his words):

"...the occupation of the Kurds of the great mountains ever since the Aryan horde started from its 'Land of the Dawn' to people Persia, Media and Europe'"

As you can see form the above, before Indian history was corrupted by Europeans, there was one very well studied man who states in the above passage that the Indo-Aryans came, not from the north, but from the east or the 'Land of the Dawn'. There is even a land in India called by this name 'Arunachal Pradesh'.

Major Soane continues and states that 'the Parthians are known to be of the Scythians'. Again, the Scythians were never associated with northern territories. Parthia derives from 'Bharat' just as Arjun's name 'Partha' also means 'descendant of Bharat'. There is only one Bharat as you know. One of the kings of Mitanni also had a name which contained the name 'Bharat'. Bharat is not in Russia or the Caucasus.

I would like you to bear in mind that the European biased Aryan theory has been responsible for racism, murder and genocide. It claimed the lives of millions of people in the 40s, Indian, gypsy, Jewish and Arabs. And today there are thousands of people in America who claim to be 'Aryans' yet there is nothing 'noble' about them. It's time to let this European Aryan theory die and keep it well and truly buried. It has nothing to do with Indian literature, it has nothing to do with any historically documented tribes and nothing to do with archaeology.


Name: Kamran Qajar
Email: kamranqajarq@yahoo.com
Date: 5/28/01
Time: 6:28:24 AM

Comments

Dear Chris Hopkins

Recently I have visited your site and find it very intersting as well as educational. I have been studying the Persian, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian history for over 30 years and within last few years published four multimedia CDs on Iran's Historical sites and monuments. Talking on history is a very controversial issue, and every so often we are witnesing the remarkable changes in form and substantial as well as the chronology of a certaian period or epoch. As I have found out for instance that the coins you mentioned attributed to Artabanus III, many Iranian scholars with adduce to the documents prepared by Moslem and Greek historians attribute them to Artabanus II. But it does not matter much. What we are seeking is finding the truth and facts; and that is why I am about to introduce a new Encyclopedia of Persian history in 80 volumes within the multimedia environment. The first three CD inclusive of 20 volumes soon will be released and the rest gradually will will be prepared within next two years period. I would like to obtain your permission to introduce some of the coins of certain epochs and periods in my program (of course mentioning the source and your name) so that enabling the Iranian scholars to get inolve in a healthy and fruitfull dialogues and also correcting the information (including of yours specially by Iran Bastan Museum experts which they have the most comprehensive collection) and relay back to you. I have translated all documens and descriptions you have prepared for each individual item and hope this will help a close cooperation between historians, collectioners as well as the museums authorities; and every body benefit from it. This is my goal and hope I could absorbed your cooperation in this instance.

I hope my request face your positive reply, If there should be any question please do not hesitate to contact me, I am at your disposal and meanwhile remain.

Yours Faithfully Kamran Qajar


Name: mf
Email:
Date: 5/16/01
Time: 8:39:39 AM

Comments

Your german page is very bad, there are many mistakes! I know that, because I am from Austria.

[Reply: Thanks for your note. Yes, we know the German is poor, but it is because the non-English pages are provided automatically by an auto-translation service. Sometimes these machine translations are very funny! See the discussion on this issue.]


Name:
Email: Liam00flynn@aol.com
Date: 5/4/01
Time: 9:44:13 PM

Comments

I've always loved this site and return to it continually to monitor its development - now it's time to exploit it. Can anyone supply me with the Greek/Latin source for the statement that Orodes took infantry with him during his invasion of Armenia in 53bce? I am beginning to think that I imagined seeing it anywhere save in secondary sources. Help?


Name: Michael
Email: jcpower19@hotmail.com
Date: 2/20/01
Time: 7:04:32 PM

Comments

You gave this resource, on Phlegon of Tralles:

Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (F GR HIST), II B Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1961, 1164 p.

Do you know if this work is in English as well?


Name: Arthur
Email: arthur@AA6500.spb.edu
Date: 1/28/01
Time: 8:21:13 PM

Comments

Your can find some useful information about Parthia and related topics from my web site: http://members.theglobe.com/Arthur117/index.htm


Name:
Email:
Date: 1/28/01
Time: 4:28:49 PM

Comments

Awesome job!! You really give an excellent amount of information. C'est super! : )


Name: ilyas
Email: seahawk41@yahoo.com
Date: 1/21/01
Time: 12:14:14 PM

Comments

hi, i'm ilyas,lived in pakistan.i have some ancient coins for the period of a.d.120,king kanishka, a.d.150,king huvishka, a.d.180,king vasu deva.i want sell my thes coins for reasonable value.


Name: Jacob McCann
Email: mas.o.meno@mindspring.com
Date: 1/19/01
Time: 3:41:06 PM

Comments

Thank you for this wonderful resource. I have been searching libraries and the internet looking for anything I can find on the Parthians, and resources are scarce. This site is constructed very well, and the links are extensive.I can only hope that there are others who care as much, for the Parthian empire has gone largely unnoticed.


Name: Phil Bailey
Email: phil.bailey@netserv.net.au
Date: 1/8/01
Time: 4:10:46 AM

Comments

This just gets better every time I visit. Well done and keep it up. You are advancing the understanding of Parthian History in leaps and bounds. The site is very useful for coin collectors also.


Name: Lady Chantelle D'Brionne - Brewer
Email: j.raynor@ntlworld.com
Date: 1/3/01
Time: 4:35:30 PM

Comments

This is intrestingly laid out. However I am looking for information on early agriculture, and three does not appear to be very much informtion on the subject. Also I am looking for information on early plants fruits and vegitables that were grown in Persia, the early development of Persian gardens for my history project at university! Not having much luck so far. Any body with any information, I would welcome their input and suggestions. I'm sure there can be a trade of infirmation here! Many thaks for this informational website have enjoyed the introduction to Persian hitory.


Name: Farsheed Khosmood
Email: bozorgmehr@yahoo.com
Date: 12/31/00
Time: 1:48:48 AM

Comments

Jesus came from a Parthian family? I know the three wise are belived to be Zoroastrian but I have never heard this before. Does anyone know of any written texts or books arguing Mr. Sandor theory with evidence?

Name: Sandor Email: Date: 11/19/00 Time: 2:42:57 PM Comments Beautfully organized site indeed! Having run through the history and then the feedback section I feel I should make some comments.Are Parthians History's lost people? I would rather say the Bible's. In history they occupy a special place, that of the one invincible opponent of the Roman Empire during nearly 500 years. Why would such prowess go unnoticed? Clearly Hellenism in the region would suffer. Moreover, Mithra exerted such impact that even the archenemy Rome embraced mithraism and erected temples from Britannia to the Eufrates through Germany and even Switzerland. Then came Jesus of the princely parthian family Adiabani Grapta Kharax of the governor's palace of Jerusalem.When the jewish patriotism under roman rule obtained the physical sacrifice of the parthian troublemaker, his disciples were exiled back to Parthia. Paul and later his followers Epiphanios and Eusebios preferred to forget about Parthia, home of Mithra, Jesus and Mani, when composing the Bible.The new biblical descent of Jesus, that of David, made it wholly unacceptable to mention any such heretical lineage.Scithic Parthia as the great empire that upheld the sumerian heritage could be better outlined today. Even if contradictions occured with certan canonical texts.
 


Name: Glen L. Nelson Jr.
Email: maxfurie@webtv.net
Date: 12/30/00
Time: 8:52:27 PM

Comments

Your web site is masterful. I have recently become very interested in Parthian history but have been unable to find any books devoted solely to the subject. I decided to try the web and lo and behold I found your site. It is terrific and has everything I was looking for. I am still interested in a modern work about the Parthian empire - can you make any suggestions? Thanks and have a great new year!


Name: Haroon Tareen
Email: hmk@isb.paknet.com.pk
Date: 12/22/00
Time: 10:31:28 PM

Comments

Excellent Site. Probably the best in terms of outlay, information and help to collectors.


Name: Rich Hartzog
Email: hartzog@exonumia.com
Date: 12/20/00
Time: 11:33:22 PM

Comments

Your site search, and SNAP.com, finds a match to "Ennerre", but I cannot find it on your page (#30). Mr. Edizioni Ennerre published a book on COUNTERMARKS: "Graffitit et contremarques ouest-semitiqes sur les monnaies grecques et proche-orientales". I would like to purchase a copy. Do you have any idea how I can contact him?

Thanks!


Name: David MacDonald
Email: djmacdo@ilstu.edu
Date: 12/8/00
Time: 2:16:08 PM

Comments

Thnak you for making this marvelous site available. I am ever so happy with the amazing bibliography! Perhaps sometime in the near future I may be able to send you a few bits of interest.


Name: Alessandro Mello
Email: alessandromello@libero.it
Date: 12/4/00
Time: 4:50:40 AM

Comments

i'm writing a book for turin university about septimius severus. in the page you dedicate to his coins you say you're not sure about the factual events that led to his inscriptions of PART ARAB and PART ADIAB. those were two victories on kingdoms of the parthian empire in his first parthian war (before 197). arabi and adiabeni were in fact two nations he conquered, and celebrated those victories instead of the one he was interested at because he was still incapable to reach the tigris. anyway, your page is very useful and i'm using it!!!


Name: gerrit bijl
Email: nimrod81@home.com
Date: 11/26/00
Time: 1:21:10 AM

Comments

wonderful, very nice to see and to read. a main work on coinage of these period.


Name: Sandor
Email:
Date: 11/19/00
Time: 2:42:57 PM

Comments

Beautfully organized site indeed! Having run through the history and then the feedback section I feel I should make some comments.Are Parthians History's lost people? I would rather say the Bible's. In history they occupy a special place, that of the one invincible opponent of the Roman Empire during nearly 500 years. Why would such prowess go unnoticed? Clearly Hellenism in the region would suffer. Moreover, Mithra exerted such impact that even the archenemy Rome embraced mithraism and erected temples from Britannia to the Eufrates through Germany and even Switzerland. Then came Jesus of the princely parthian family Adiabani Grapta Kharax of the governor's palace of Jerusalem.When the jewish patriotism under roman rule obtained the physical sacrifice of the parthian troublemaker, his disciples were exiled back to Parthia. Paul and later his followers Epiphanios and Eusebios preferred to forget about Parthia, home of Mithra, Jesus and Mani, when composing the Bible.The new biblical descent of Jesus, that of David, made it wholly unacceptable to mention any such heretical lineage.Scithic Parthia as the great empire that upheld the sumerian heritage could be better outlined today. Even if contradictions occured with certan canonical texts.


Name: R. Rives
Email: LBARBRANCH@aol.com
Date: 11/19/00
Time: 12:11:36 PM

Comments

Exceptional work! Do you have this in book type form?---I would like to buy a copy!


Name: melissa Blauvelt
Email:
Date: 11/15/00
Time: 12:26:07 PM

Comments

This web site is very informational. It helped in my research for my english 12 class.


Name: Gary P. Leupp
Email: gleupp@emerald.tufts.edu
Date: 11/14/00
Time: 2:05:26 PM

Comments

Wonderful site!

Question, should anyone wish to address it:

How likely might it have been, ca. 150-250 CE, for an Indian merchant to be able to travel from Taxila all the way to (say) Antioch, conduct business, and then return via the Silk Road or by an oceanic route; or for a roman to do the opposite?

Seems to me that the Parthians weren't in fact all that concerned about, or capable of preventing, direct business relationships on a modest scale between the Meditteranean and India... and that in consequence (here's the bold assertion) one sees Buddhist influence in Edessa from the late 100s.

Comments appreciated. GL


Name: Khodadad
Email: khodadad21@yahoo.com
Date: 10/7/00
Time: 3:11:12 AM

Comments

Chris:

Your unattrb. coin number 22 belongs to Ardeshir I of Sasanian Dynasty. It is one of the ones minted before he actually became the Emperor and ruled only over Parse. His crown is without the spires, and the back of the coin shows a 'a which I imagine is the Khvra Artakhshir.

Khodadad


Name: Alan H Burghauser
Email: ahbmd@home.com
Date: 10/6/00
Time: 5:25:15 PM

Comments

I am having trouble getting the font to work. Once it is copied to the desktop, how do you add it to the font menu? Also, the guide was opened in notepad and is ellegible. How can I open thisupin another way so that I can read it? Thanks for your help. When will the final version be out and how much will it cost and how can I purchase it? It is nice to see a letter "C" which I need in the Greek Alphabet!


Name: kostas laskaris
Email: klaskaridis@hotmail.com
Date: 9/21/00
Time: 2:06:16 PM

Comments

you have a very nice and interesting site. One small criticism, however: you have left incomplete the list of letters used for Greek numbers i.e. 600 = chi 700 = psi 800 = omega 900 = sampi also you do not mention the method used for numbers over 999: greeks certainly could count beyond that number. After all it was a greek who measured first the circumference of the earth. regards kostas laskaris


Name: Rian Thum
Email: rianthum@yahoo.com
Date: 9/19/00
Time: 6:01:39 PM

Comments

I have a few coins for which you may want images: -Ecbatana city coinage. -Arsaces II AE. Not in Sellwood but would be type 5. Rev: bird -a nicer Sellwood 5 AR drachm -Orodes I fouree drachm -nicer (EF) Artabanus IV drachm I would be happy to contribute images if you tell me what's involved.

Also, I would like to sell my collection. Interested parties should e-mail me for a list.


Name: Ali Bagheri
Email: info@nmartinmotion.com
Date: 9/18/00
Time: 10:02:09 PM

Comments

I have recently purchased a Mithradates II AR Drachm which the dealer references sellwood 24/7 and sear greek 7367. you have referenced sellwood 24/7 and ANS # 1990-23-56 as modern forgery is it true or not!!!!!!!


Name: Uzakov Timur
Email: uzakov@aport.ru
Date: 9/8/00
Time: 12:00:19 PM

Comments

Please visit new www.geocities.com/rtveladze


Name: ross
Email: fellowes@surfsouth
Date: 8/6/00
Time: 5:45:08 PM

Comments

what is"'orichalum" ??


Name: Arno Kose
Email: orient@dainst.de
Date: 7/21/00
Time: 6:11:41 AM

Comments

The monograph "A. Kose, Uruk. Architektur IV. Von der Seleukiden- bis zur Sasanidenzeit. Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka Endberichte 17." appeared in 1998 NOT in 1995.


Name:
Email:
Date: 7/19/00
Time: 1:47:14 PM

Comments

Brilliant Site. Maybe try to put prices.


Name: David Hatch
Email: david.hatch@ntlorld.com
Date: 7/17/00
Time: 8:46:29 PM

Comments

Found your site trying to find evidence to confirm the tactical use of horse archers in ancient battles. Is there any reliable evidence that Horse Archers fired their bows from a horse whilst moving or was it normal practice for the archer to halt his horse before taking aim?


Name: Frank Robinson
Email: fr@albany.net
Date: 7/6/00
Time: 8:10:25 AM

Comments

I always have a good run of Parthian coins in my 700-lot unreserved mail auctions of ancient coins. Contact me for a free illustrated catalog.


Name: crazy
Email: jorgesan@canal21.com
Date: 6/29/00
Time: 9:08:56 AM

Comments

Hello, could you send me an e-mail with links about Parthians armys

thanks ;-D


Name:
Email: lysimachos_ohio@yahoo.com
Date: 6/1/00
Time: 11:29:55 AM

Comments

I am searching for a biographical reference for the Characene king Attambelos I. Any help in this would be appreciated.


Name: Ray Sallan
Email: sallany@hotmail.com
Date: 5/25/00
Time: 11:46:06 AM

Comments

I looked for the map hoping that I would see more cities in Parthia, as Im looking for certian locationsbut when I looked at the interactive map I noticed that there is only very few cities really. I would appreciate adding the locations of more cities not only in parthia but also in the neigboring areas like Armenia and Galatia, or Syria on the actual map, that would really help many people, especially me.

Thanks


Name:
Email: jel3198@aol.com
Date: 5/22/00
Time: 5:28:12 PM

Comments

Enjoyed your site very much. Very difficult to find information on Parthia


Name:
Email:
Date: 5/16/00
Time: 4:00:54 PM

Comments

This is a great web site. I would only suggest a brief explanation of the difference between a Persian, a Parthian and (more obviously) the Armenian.

Great costume graphics!!!!!


Name: GENE BRADSHAW
Email: mshires@carrauto.com
Date: 4/18/00
Time: 1:02:46 PM

Comments

I AM LOOKING FOR SIRIAN GOLD, MODERN OR ANCIENT. PLEASE ADVISE. THANK YOU.


Name:
Email:
Date: 3/20/00
Time: 6:48:19 PM

Comments

Thought you might be interested in our April 15th auction featuring Ancient, Medieval, World and US Gold Coins!

See link below for catalogue with color photos! http://www.maltergalleries.com/041500auctioncat1.html

Absentee bids accepted!

Malter Galleries Inc. 17005 Ventura Bl. Encino, CA 91316

If this reached you in error, please accept our apologies.


Name: dick samples
Email: dksamples@aol.com
Date: 3/2/00
Time: 12:08:21 PM

Comments

Excellent website. Thanks for your efforts.


Name: Simon
Email:
Date: 1/29/00
Time: 5:57:15 PM

Comments

A very exquisite demonstration of a historian... Blaze it, FBS!


Name: GySgt Philip L. Fowler, USMC-Retired
Email: FowlerUSMC@yahoo.com
Date: 1/18/00
Time: 3:10:28 PM

Comments

Chris, Back in November 1998 you asked me to review the prototype site you were creating on Parthia. I am amazed at how well this has progressed! This web site has become a favorite of mine. You really ought to consider writing a book... Semper fi, Philip....


Name: DOKKA SRINIVASU
Email: SRINIVASU@ENGLAND.COM
Date: 1/15/00
Time: 2:50:10 AM

Comments

Sir,

Your website is beautiful and it is very useful to those interested in the field of coinslike me.

With you web I got someknowledge about Partian Coins and I will encourage coins collectors of worldwide to recommend your site for parthian coins.


Name: George D. LeMaitre, MD
Email: drlemaitre@vascutech.com
Date: 1/10/00
Time: 8:59:38 PM

Comments

Simply superb. The interactive map is great. The links are mind-boggling. I must congratulate you all for this informative piece of work.


Name: Chris Hopkins
Email: chopkins@erinet.com
Date: 1/10/00
Time: 1:00:36 PM

Comments

Parthia.com has been changed to a server beginning in Jan 2000. Please let me know of any problems you encounter.


Name: michael
Email: mparrinello@compuserve.com
Date: 20 Dec 1999
Time: 20:04:35

Comments

How is it that the Persian empire or for that matter Partha allowed to exist alongside the Roman Empire? Why did the Romans not conquer Persia?


Name: Beverley Burris
Email: Beverley@Wolf-e-Mail.zzn.com
Date: 16 Dec 1999
Time: 13:31:47

Comments

The Parthians are one of history's lost people. I say that because only a historian will be looking them up. As a equine historian, I am also tired of being told that the Akalh-Teke was their mount of choice, when their coins clearly show a robust animal of the Nissian-Nicean breed.


Name: Remy Range
Email: remy@wpi.edu
Date: 30 Nov 1999
Time: 13:10:09

Comments

Hello, I'm currently doing some work at the Higgins armory museum at Worcester Mass. We have a "coin" that has a hole in the center, I'm not sure if the hole is from corrosion, or if it was meant to be there. I researched its original excavation at Dura Europos in Syria, and it was originally labeled as a Parthian coin"due to shape and size", and could be from third century Mesopotanian issue.

It was found in an amphitheatre next to some corroded bronze, small beads, and some engraved gems.

Could you help me find out what the deal is with the hole, is this common or not.

Thank you very much Remy Range WPI.


Name: John
Email: GodsApostle@aol.com
Date: 14 Nov 1999
Time: 05:17:07

Comments

Where can I get some information on where to sell and buy these kind of coins mentioned in this website? Where do I start?


Name: Spiro
Email: spiro@total.net
Date: 17 Oct 1999
Time: 02:43:30

Comments

Dear Mr.Hopkins , Being a major history lover(mostly Greek)i enjoyed your site very much.You must understand though(if you dont)that the Parthians didnt regard themselves as Persians and according to some sources I have read that they were of Scythian descent.Whatever the case,they didnt see themselves as the heirs to the Persian Empire as the Sassanians did centuries later.They were allied with the Persians many times,during the Greek invasion under Alexander the Great for instance. In my opinion you should include this info in your website.Please e-mail me what you think about my comments. Thank you.


Name:
Email: wheelsoz@earthlink.net
Date: 16 Oct 1999
Time: 15:39:27

Comments

Vespasian - Roman Coin 69-79 A.D. I am trying to gather some information regarding this coin. can you help??


Name: Matthew Kowalski OSB
Email: mkowalsk@compuserve.com
Date: 10 Oct 1999
Time: 22:20:51

Comments

Have you heard the theory that the 3 magi of the bible were diplomats from Parthian Emperor? I read an interesting book that discussed Parthian interest in Palestine and presence of diaspora Jews in Parthian imperial court. Also connections to lost tribes of Israel. Much is speculation I know but if you have any information on this I would be interested in it.


Name: DALLAS STANLEY
Email: WSTANLEY@CTC.NET
Date: 26 Sep 1999
Time: 14:55:28

Comments

Just discovered your sight. Have initial interest in coins of Parthia and your sight is just what the doctor ordered. From just my few minutes of viewing your sight is excellent quality and full of useful information. Keep up the good work.


Name: Philip powell
Email: philipb.powell@virgin.net
Date: 23 Sep 1999
Time: 12:18:11

Comments

I found this site because I have been searching for a very long time now for a good picture of the classic 'Parthian Shot'.

The few I've managed to track down are all unsuitable, mainly very crude and often from ancient Roman or related sources.

Ideally I want one of the kind of quality a magazine like National Geographica would commission.

Can anyone help me? I'd happily buy a book or similar if I knew it contained the desired picture.

I could also get an artist friend to draw an original, but first he needs a reference to a Parthian warrier, ideally firing a bow.


Name: Amanda B
Email: Aussieinamerica@hotmail.com
Date: 13 Sep 1999
Time: 20:17:00

Comments

I have a coin that was given to me. I know nothing about it other than it is from somewhere around Europe. On one side, the coin has the face of a man . He is wearing no armor. On the other side, there is a person with a long garment on. I think he is holding a wreath and maybe some sort of wheat(???). ON the right side of the person there is a S, and on the left there is F. F S I have been searching for a while and have found no other copies. It is brownish in color, and has small writing around the cirles on both sides. PLEASE help me find out about this!!!! Thank you very much, Amanda


Name: Chet Fowler
Email: bmf198@enteract.com
Date: 10 Sep 1999
Time: 07:32:53

Comments

Glad I found this site. Have been interested in the Mysterious Parthians for some time. Does anyone know where a person can get copies of 2 George Rawlinson books-"The Parthians" and "The Sixth Oriental Monarchy"? It is my understanding that the two books shed much light on the subject. Also. I enjoy the comments in the feedback section. Best regards, Chet Fowler


Name: Cindy Bayer
Email: cabayer@driveninc.com
Date: 05 Sep 1999
Time: 07:18:13

Comments

I am trying to identify a coin that is made of iron, on one side has a goblet and reverse has some sort of mayby a plant with 3 branches? I am guessing it would be somewhere in the middle east but not sure. There is no bust of issuing authority so I can't do the search the way you have it. can you help Thank you Cindy


Name: Sheer Khan Sabbah Farsaad
Email: FarsaadsatWebtv.net
Date: 15 Aug 1999
Time: 19:45:57

Comments

There is no such thing as ancient persia. The empire (and now country) was always called Eran-Iran. Persia is a greek word for the Pars tribe of the Aryan race (Indo-Iranians). The fact the Europeans and indeed Asians themselves have incorrectly used Persia does not make it correct.

SKS Farsaad


Name: Farsheed
Email: bozorgmehr@yahoo.com
Date: 13 Aug 1999
Time: 16:03:28

Comments

Great job as always. Question: why have you not switched your dating system to the new system? I.e A.D. would be ADE (After the Common Era) and BCE (Before the Common Era).


Name: Jeanne Kaufman
Email: roadking@canuck.com
Date: 08 Aug 1999
Time: 14:42:31

Comments

The photos on this site are turly very helpful. However, can you tell me exactly how you distinguish between the Artabanus II (Sel. 63.6) and the Artabanus III (Sel. 74.6) that you show. I am having some frustration in this regard and would appreciate any helpful comments.


Name: Michel Prieur
Email: prieur@cgb.fr
Date: 03 Aug 1999
Time: 06:16:45

Comments

Dear Chris, I am currently working on our links page, please remind me how you want your site to be referenced and which entry page do you prefer. Yours


Name: OMER,GAZNAVIED
Email:
Date: 12 Jul 1999
Time: 14:02:09

Comments

EVEN ITALY DOESN'T CLAIM ALL THE VICTORY AND HONOR OF ROMAN EMPIRE, HOW COME THE COUNTRY THAT IS KNOW AS IRAN TODAY DOES CLAIM ALL THE VICTORY OF ARYAN NATION? HOW COME U JUSTIFY PARTHAINS TO BE PERSIAN OR IRANIAN( FROM COUNTRY THAT IS KNOW AS IRAN TODAY) ?


Name: H Rashvand
Email: h.rashvand@ieee.org
Date: 12 Jun 1999
Time: 15:06:48

Comments

Great quality - I am well inspired by what we can do to improve our lifestyle. ------


Name: john molloy
Email: bonada70@hotmail.com
Date: 07 Jun 1999
Time: 19:17:52

Comments

Parthian history at Nisa is linked to several scripts indicating mixed Sakai and Aramaic speaker ancestry. We are looking for regional Parthian semi-indepedent sub-ruler lists and related coin data, particlularly for the late period. Of perticular interest to us is Sind and so-called Inner India and Baluchistan and links to Kushana and even later Naga groups, especially after about 100 AD.


Name: Khodadad Rezakhani
Email: khodadad21@yahoo.com
Date: 25 May 1999
Time: 18:04:32

Comments

This is the second time I am leaving a comment for your page, since I see that you have updated and added more information since the last time. First of all, it is even greater and grander that I imagine it to be. The information is so extensive that it would take a long time to understand the whole thing. Yet, I have some suggestions. Please put an extensive history page up. You give a small over view of the whole Parthian Period, then give the detailes in individual ruler pages. This system is alright if you are surfing, but if one tries to print, there is simply too many pages to do so. Second, you are only mentioning the kings. A country and a civilisation is much more than it kings. I think you should mention the social and economical aspects of the time as well. I am updating my History of Iran web page soon, you are more than welcome to put a link to it so people can get an idea of the whole history of Iran with some more details. Thanks, Khodadad


Name: Katsuhiko Nishio
Email: knishio@jp.oracle.com
Date: 08 May 1999
Time: 07:03:59

Comments

It's so grate. I've been looking for Web site like this pages. There is no much documentation and study book about Parthia in Japan. So today I cound not work in my office because of finding of this pages. I wish that I was more 10 age younger..If so , I would join to resarch the history and archeology .( I've graduated the department of Histry , but now I'm working computer engineer. hahaha...) Last year though I had a trip to Turkey , Iran and Central Asia. It was difficult to find the books and archeological ruin of Parthia ( Of course I could not enter Iraq). I'm interesting the world between B.C.2nd to A.D 7C. I want to know what the ancient people think , how they made their life and how they have seen their world in these period. Thanks for your work.


Name: Chris Hopkins
Email: chopkins@erinet.com
Date: 23 Apr 1999
Time: 15:06:48

Comments

My apologies, but due to a server crash and reload, all comments posted from 25 March until 23 April were lost.


Name: patrick arnold
Email: paarnold@wizards.net
Date: 24 Mar 1999
Time: 15:41:16

Comments

noon pacific time 3-24-99
Thank you for your page. Am doing research on Judea from Maccabean period to Diaspora. Did not realize that Parthia held Israel and Samaria within three generations of Jesus's birth. Gallilee of Jesus as well as Idumea of Herod were just being brought under Jerusalem's control at that era. Since one Nativity Account in a Gospel cites Magi visiting the Christ child---and the term Mage or Magi was as definite at that time as the term Rabbi is today---thus Zorastrian priests ( or at least Jewish astronomers from Babylon influenced by Zorastrianism) were an influence on Christianity from its literal birth. This is most interesting.
paa


Name: Hooshyar F. Naraghi
Email: ish@sportestan.com
Date: 04 Feb 1999
Time: 17:34:12

Comments

What can I say? Congratulations to this great web site to resurrect the Parthian Dynasty of Iran.

The Iranian Sports Homepage (http://www.sportestan.com) has published a mini-series about the Traditional Iranian Martial Arts or Varzesh-e Pahlavani as it is said in Persian.. I am the publisher of the series, authored by Mr. Farzad Nekoogar. The origin of this tradition goes back to Parthian Era and to some extend to Mithraism. We are pleased to find out there is a web site dedicated to Parthian.

Pahlavani orgins are as mysterious as Parthian people and culture. I will add this web site to our Table of Contents.

Thank you for preserving this forgotten and unjustly neglected culture. As an Iranian, I appreciate you have done this work for me. Please keep up the great work and let me know if there is anything we can do from Sportestan.

Regards, Hooshyar F. Naraghi


Name: shahrokh mortazavi
Email: smortaz@microsoft.com
Date: 25 Jan 1999
Time: 21:58:09

Comments

Great stuff. thanks for the effort and the opportunity to learn more about my homeland.


Name: Prof. Dr. Josef Wiesehoefer
Email: J.Wiesehoefer@kiel.netsurf.de
Date: 19 Jan 1999
Time: 05:30:20

Comments

At the university of Kiel, Germany we are preparing a bibliography on the Parthians. I should also refer to two recent publications on the Parthians: J. Wiesehoefer, Ancient Persia, London: Tauris 1996 (New York 1998) and especially J. Wiesehoefer (Ed.), Das Partherrreich und seine Zeugnisse - The Arsacid Empire: Sources and Documentation (Historia-Einzelschriften, H. 122), Stuttgart: Steiner 1998 (articles in English and German).


Name: Jeanne Kaufman
Email: roadking@canuck.com
Date: 05 Jan 1999
Time: 22:15:35

Comments

This web site is a wonderful pleasure. Many thanks and much admiration for all your effort. I appreciate the connections to other collectors with similar interests. You have opened a door for me that I had no hope existed before. Other people love Partian coins, too!


Name: Michael Fuller
Email:
Date: 03 Jan 1999
Time: 20:00:47

Comments

http://www.stlcc.cc.mo.us/fv/tuneinir/area1/area1.htm

Here is the html address. Best wishes.


Name: Michael Fuller
Email: mfuller@artsci.wustl.edu
Date: 03 Jan 1999
Time: 19:59:47

Comments

Saw you notice on the parthia site in ANE Digest. Looks great. You are welcome to link to our excavation website where we have some Parthian pottery and architecture, but alas, no coins. Best wishes. Happy New Year. Michael


Name: E. Adams
Email: nyokabi@kingcon.com
Date: 03 Jan 1999
Time: 07:51:50

Comments

Several of the different coins mention that on the reverse they have a beardless archer seated to the right of the throne. Is there somewhere on the site where such a reverse image is reproduced? [I don't have time to comb thru the entire thing though I would like to someday!} This is wonderful, thanks for all the work.


Name: R. P. Brazil
Email: Leish@hotmail.com
Date: 30 Dec 1998
Time: 08:34:06

Comments

Belo Horizonte, December 30 1998.

Congratulations on your site.This is already is one of my favorite web sites R. P. Brazil


Name: GySgt Philip L. Fowler, USMC-Retired
Email: FowlerUSMC@yahoo.com
Date: 23 Dec 1998
Time: 16:24:40

Comments

I have re-examined your Parthia.com. You said you wanted the truth and to disregard the tact....on a scale of 1 to 10, I'd give your site a 28. It is simply great! It's more than I would ever have thought would be available on Parthia!


Name: Khodadad Rezakhani
Email: kreza@txcyber.com
Date: 22 Dec 1998
Time: 20:06:40

Comments

This page is GREAT! I am an amature historian, and the author of the Brief History of Iran web page. I think this is the best site I have ever seen on the subject of Parthiam empire, and most likely one of the few sources available to the public concerning Arsacids. As an Iranian and a history buff, I respect your effort and truly apreciate your work.

Khodadad Rezakhani


Name: Robert Leonard
Email: RLWinnetka@aol.com
Date: 29 Nov 1998
Time: 09:18:19

Comments

This is a test comment only, as requested. I'm sending an e-mail with full comments. Great site!


Name: Carol A. Bromberg
Email: bai34@comcast.net
Date: 22 Nov 1998
Time: 11:40:32

Comments

Dear Colleague,

Please add to your interesting and useful bibliography these articles from the BULLETIN OF THE ASIA INSTITUTE.

Thanks, Carol A. Bromberg Editor and Publisher, BULLETIN OF THE ASIA INSTITUTE

___________________________________________________
Bulletin of the Asia Institute 1 (1987)

Chantal Fabrègues, "The Indo-Parthian Beginnings of Gandhara Sculpture"

Excavations at the Gandharan site of Butkara (Pakistan) have yielded sculpture, dated numismatically around the beginning of the period of Parthian domination in the area, which displays both subject matter and style similar to that of objects found in the Indo-Greek levels at Sirkap (Taxila). For example, the Parthian-style jewelry represented on Butkara sculpture to that worn by bracket figures from Taxila. The costume of the figures on the Butkara sculptures is undeniably Parthian; it is identical to that shown on the Parthian bronze statue from Shami.

Bulletin of the Asia Institute 2 (1988)

Burchard Brentjes, "'Parthian' Monuments in Transcaucasia and Central Asia" In addition to structures at Nisa (Turkmenistan), temples at the sites of Mansur-depe (Turkmenistan) and Dedoplis Mindori (Georgia) are considered as Parthian.

Bulletin of the Asia Institute 3 (1989)

1. Burchard Brentjes, "Incised Bones and a Ceremonial Belt: Finds from Kurgan-Tepe and Tillia-Tepe"

A ceremonial belt found at Tillia-tepe is compared to Parthian-period belts. The author discusses belts from Mathura, Hatra, and Mzcheta (Georgia).

2. Wathiq al-Salihi, "The Lintel of Gods from Hatra" This study discusses a carved door lintel excavated at the Temple of Hatra that features male and female busts.

Bulletin of the Asia Institute 7

A. Sh. Shahbazi, "The Parthian Origins of the House of Rustam"

Iranian epics that appear in the Sasanian official history the Shahnama incorporated much Parthian history presented in the form of narratives. The author traces the legendary history of the great heroic figure of Rustam.


Name: Dr. G. R. Assar
Email: grfassar@mcmail.com
Date: 21 Nov 1998
Time: 15:18:18

Comments

Congratulations. You have laid a very sound foundation for an excellent work ahead. I have been collecting Parthian coins for around 40 years. Of this, about 20 has been spent on studying them in depth. I do see Mr. David Sellwood very regularly to discuss various issues concerning the series. Those readers who follow Sellwood's cataloging may be interested to know that he is in the process of preparing the 3rd. edition of his Catalogue which would incorporate numerous changes and additions. In particular there would be some very noticeable changes to the attribution of the coins in the so-called Parthian "Dark Age". For the past few years I have been collecting all the availabe textual and numismatic evidence pertaining to the Parthian period with emphasis on the period that followed the death of Mithradates II until the accession of Orodes II, i.e., c. 91-57. This has thrown fresh light on the Parthian "Dark Age" and made it possible not only to identify the rulers named in the Babylonian cuneiform texts but to attribute to each, with a great degree of certainty, the coins catalogued by Sellwood as S29-S45. Coupled with some fresh numismatic evidence, my investigations have revealed the true structure of the Parthian calendars at Babylon and Seleucia-on-the Tigris, and, theie intercalary cycles. The readers may be interested to know that during the period c. 48 BC- AD 51, the first month of the calendar of Seleucia was not Dois; it had been moved back to Hyperberetaios! I gave a small paper on my findings at the 12th International Numismatic Congress held in Berlin on September 1997. I am presently in the process of preparing a publication (either in the form of a book or a monograph) which would deal with both the Parthian calendrical systems and the "Dark Age" using the latest numismatic evidence and the evidence from Babylonian tablets, Greek and Aramaic parchments, Nisa ostraca, etc.. The readers may also wish to know that the entire collection of the Vonones I's gold coins (316 pieces in total) are in my possession. Since 1991, there has been strong objections from certain people and organisations to their authenticity. However, the issue still remains unresolved; all the various points against the coins have, on further investigations, proved to be completely unfounded. Presently, the outcome of metal analysis on over 100 gold pieces are being investigated by a well-known expert in the USA and very soon there would be an opportunity for myself and the critics to gather in London to decided the fate of these coins and certain late Parthian silver drachms that were condemned with them back in 1992. I would like to finish this rather lenghty message by adding that what is currently available on the Parthian History and Numismatics is roughly 20 years old. Since the publication of the 2nd. edition of Sellwood's Catalogue of the Parthian Coins, there has been numerous new types and varieties and many more textual and other sorts of evidence relating to the Parthian history and coinage. Unfortunately, these have not been available to the collectors and dealers. Hence the problems with investigating the "suspect" Parthian gold and silver coins using such out-dated evidence. I have a relatively large collection of Parthian coins and lots of references, both old and new. At the moment, most of my free time is being taken up by searching through various references and studying the cuneiform tablets at the British Nuseum in London. However, time permitting, I would be more than happy to share my knowledge of the series and the various experiences during about 40 years of collecting such coins with those who share the same interest. I will do my best to providefor your site as much fresh information on the Parthian coins and history as possible in the coming months. Very best wishes Regards, G. R. Assar, 92 Thirlestane Road, Edinburgh EH9 1AS, Scotland, UK.


Name: Tom Kirby
Email: kirby@uii.com
Date: 17 Nov 1998
Time: 07:18:39

Comments

Nice site, and I hope you have time to keep working on it. Even on my slow link here, the download times are not too bad.


Name: Alexander Filer
Email: alex@digitrade.com
Date: 16 Nov 1998
Time: 11:05:41

Comments

Outstanding work. Obviously a big investment of time and effort. I wish we had sites like this one for all the Greek kingdoms.

P.S. Please check the private comments I sent.


Name: Robert Scholnick
Email: rhepburn@aol.com
Date: 15 Nov 1998
Time: 18:48:06

Comments

Wow. What a project. I am quite impressed;however, I noted two things about the site which you might want to remedy. First, the geneological chart is unreadable. It appears as small broken type on my screen. Samll potatoes, but you seem to be interested. Secondly, I found the use of the words page right, left to be confusing. I would try prior page and next since we are all use to that terminology. It is a delight to look at the actual coin image rather than Sellwoods drawings as a guide to attribution. I look forword to the final product. What drove you to it?


Name: Patrick Pasmans
Email: Patrick.Pasmans@village.uunet.be
Date: 08 Nov 1998
Time: 07:45:45

Comments

The best website on the subject!! I'll give you detailed feedback v/ e-mail.


Name:
Email: anfacami@altavista.net
Date: 22 Oct 1998
Time: 11:12:04

Comments

great site!!!


Name:
Email: JWILLIEMAC@AOL.COM
Date: 22 Sep 1998
Time: 20:03:46

Comments

Chris, The coins came through fine on my AOL browser.Fascinating stuff. Bill


Name: Bill McIntosh
Email: JWILLIEMAC@AOL.COM
Date: 22 Sep 1998
Time: 09:01:39

Comments

Chris, Great website. I enjoyed a tour this morning at state taxpayer's expense. Bill


Name: Chris Hopkins
Email: chopkins@erinet.com
Date: 01 Sep 1998
Time: 13:02:23

Comments

Feedback page made available for public comments.


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