This site respects your privacy. It does not set cookies. It does not track your preferences. It does not send you unsolicited email. It does not resell your identifying data. All transactions are mediated by Chris Hopkins who will answer your questions on this policy or any activities of this site.
This site contains hyperlinks to other web sites and is not responsible for the privacy practices nor the content of those sites.
On this web site, the database reports there are 510 web pages illustrated with 3222 Parthian coins and 424 Roman coins. The Annotated Parthia Bibliography contains 3454 reference works by 1711 authors. Click here for statistical analysis of the Parthian coin image database
This site complies with the W3C standards HTML 4.01 and CSS 2.1.
This site was designed using the 216 "safe" colors that can be viewed consistently with any Internet browser using almost any 256-color (or better color-depth) monitor. However, many of the map and coin images were created using more colors. This site can be viewed at any color depth but, for the best viewing of photographs, use True Color (32-bit color depth) for your screen display.
Also, this site was designed for use at any screen resolution. Because some map and coin images are larger than 640x480 pixels, setting your monitor to a screen resolution of 800x600 pixels or greater will provide the optimum viewing.
This site uses Unicode fonts throughout. Symbol font and other 8-bit fonts are not used on this web site because they cannot be read by Mozilla Firefox (and some other standards-compliant browsers) when in standards-compliant mode.
Unicode is not perfect for classicists and numismatists. Not all Unicode Greek fonts have the Archaic Koppa () and lunate Digamma (, also called Stigma) characters required to express dates engraved on some Greek coins. Also, while Unicode has both a four-bar Sigma () and a lunate Sigma (C), many other letterforms are not separately encoded. The technology is evolving to allow variant letterforms, but until that technology matures, we must express Greek legends in the standard letterforms so they will be readable by the majority of computers, unlike the obsolete and unlamented Symbol font. This site uses the Segoe UI or Microsoft Sans Serif fonts to represent Greek inscriptions.
But for for the best coverage of the Unicode range of characters appropriate to classical studies and numismatics, and for proper rendering of Greek text on this web site, you should have at least one of the following Unicode fonts installed on your computer. It must also be selected as the default font for Greek in your web browser:
Some other Greek font technical issues and font recommendations are described on the web page Unicode Greek Fonts for Numismatists.
In order of preference, one of the following will be used as the serif font throughout this web site: Constantia or Book Antiqua or Georgia or Palatino Linotype or Times New Roman or Times.
This web site is designed using the Constantia font because its design characteristics make it an excellent presentation font for web pages with an "ancient" feel. Constantia is reminiscent of old style typefaces but specifically designed for computers with excellent display qualities. It is not quite a true serif font, but rather a hybrid of serif and sans serif. Constantia is distributed with Microsoft Vista and Office 2007 and later applications.
Book Antiqua is an excellent "ancient" feel font but was replaced by Palatino Linotype in Microsoft software distributions in 2000. Book Antiqua is available if you installed Microsoft Office 95 through Office 2000, or Microsoft Windows 95. For Microsoft Office 98, it is an optional font located in the ValuPack folder on the installation CD-ROM disk for both Windows and Macintosh.
The Georgia font is part of the Web core fonts package and is preinstalled by default on Windows-based computers before 2000 and on all Apple Macintosh systems. The Georgia typeface shares many similarities with Times New Roman, though Georgia is noticeably larger than Times at the same point size.
Palatino Linotype font (and Palatino on Macintosh) also has an "ancient" feel. While not every browser will have it available, Palatino Linotype is widely available on Macs and has been distributed with all Microsoft applications since 2000.
Where none of the above fonts is available on your computer, Times New Roman or Times font is substituted. Times New Roman (and the closely related Times) font is ubiquitous on modern computers. This font is supplied with Microsoft Windows. It is also freely available for Apple Macintosh computers.
Where none of the above fonts is available, the default font specified for your Internet browser will be used.
The TrueType, Adobe Type 1 and OpenType font icons are placed beside links to web pages which require a special font on the destination page. There are two specialty fonts currently available:
Numismatica TrueType and Type 1 Fonts - We are currently participating in the development of a numismatic font that includes the archaic and classical Greek letterforms. See the Numismatica Font web page for more information.
IranWeb2 Font - This specialty font is required to properly read the transliterations used in the electronic edition of Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 7 and later. The font for Macintosh or Windows may be downloaded from Encyclopaedia Iranica's Entries page, where you must click on "Instructions" in the left-hand margin to download the font. Note: The IranWeb2 font has been replaced by Unicode fonts, but a number of unusual conventions are employed. Please see "Iranica Unicode Substitutions Test" for more information.
The English pages on this web site can be automatically translated into French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese, Korean and Japanese by AltaVista's Babelfish machine translator. From the Parthia.com home page, click on the desired language. You will receive a dialog with the URL address of the page to be translated. Click on the Translate button, and Babelfish will present a translation of the page. Each successive link from a translated page will also prompt you for translation. If you are on a page in English you would like to translate, go to the home page, click on the desired language and navigate to the desired page.
While machine translation produces reasonable results in many cases, you should not rely on it. The translations are far from perfect and you will see some serious -- and often very humorous -- errors. Read the article on Babelfish.
To escape from the translator and return to the home page, enter parthia.com in the URL Address window of your browser and press the enter key.
Babelfish has several problems that you can work around:
• If a word has two or more meanings, the machine will take the most used.
• If the machine doesn't know the word, it will not be translated.
• If the URL address includes a bookmark at the end (for example, http://parthia.com/parthia_geography.htm#Overview), you'll get a Fetch Error. The portion at the end of the URL, starting with the # character, is the bookmark. Use your browser's Back button to return to the Babelfish dialog window, remove the last portion of the URL address starting with the crosshatch character in the dialog window (#Overview, in our example), and then click the Translate button.
• If the URL address is to a JPEG, GIF or other non-text object, you'll get a Fetch Error. Use your browser's Back button to see the Babelfish dialog window, copy the entire URL address to your clipboard and then paste it into the browser's URL Address window and press the enter key. This will take you directly to the destination, bypassing the translator.
Unfortunately, Babelfish will only translate the first five thousand characters (about 2½ pages) of text. You'll see ***TRANSLATION ENDS HERE*** in the translated document to note that fact. Also, you will occasionally see **time-out** which means that, due to slow server response time, some information was lost; you should check the original text or repeat the translation.
If you received a warning, don't see a message or possibly don't even see the white box, you should:
This site uses Adobe Reader™, formerly Adobe Acrobat Reader, for presenting some documents on the web; Adobe Reader is free software that lets you view and print Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files on a variety of hardware and operating system platforms. Adobe Reader is required to view either the downloaded or on-line versions of PDF documents. Files that require Adobe Reader are identified with the Adobe PDF icon.
Click this button to get the latest version of Adobe Reader for free.
This site uses Adobe Flash™, formerly Macromedia Flash, for several interactive graphics; the Adobe Flash Player is available for free. The Flash Player currently ships with all major web browsers and operating systems, so you probably can view Flash content without having to download the plug-in application. In December 2009, a Millward Brown survey determined that 99.0% of Internet-enabled desktops in mature markets can experience Flash content without having to download and install a player. You can test your browser to see if it already has the Flash Player installed.
Click this button to get the latest version of Adobe Flash Player for free.
The contents of this site web site are for your personal, educational, non-commercial use only, are Copyright ©1998-2012 by Edward C. D. Hopkins and may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Images on this web site are Copyright ©1998-2012 by Edward C. D. Hopkins or the copyrighted intellectual property of individuals or entities who specifically permit their use on this web site. No image may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner(s).
I respect the intellectual property of all parties. If a user or other third party believes that its content has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, that user or third party should provide me with the following information pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA): (a) an electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest; (b) a description of the copyrighted work that has been infringed; (c) a description of where the allegedly infringing material is located on the Website; (d) the affected user or third party's address, telephone number and email address; (e) a statement by the affected user or third party that he or she has a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent or the law; and (f) a statement by the affected user or third party, under penalty of perjury, that the above information is accurate and that such user or third party is the copyright owner or is otherwise authorized to act on the copyright owner's behalf.
This page last updated 14 Mar 2010