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On-Line Texts

The following texts and books about Parthia are available on the Internet:

American Numismatic Association. "Parthian Gold and Silver: Genuine Coins or Modern Forgeries?" in Counterfeit Coin Bulletin, November 2001.

Augustus. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus, A.D. 14.  The deeds of Augustus inscribed on two bronze pillars in Rome. Translated by Thomas Bushnell.

Avesta. The complete text of the extant Avesta.

Gertrude Bell. The Gertrude Bell Project. Middle East letters, diaries and photographs by the early 20th century traveler.

Alfred R. Bellinger (1943), "The numismatic evidence from Dura"

D. R. Bhandarkar. "A Kushana stone-inscription and the question about the origin of the `Saka era,"  The Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 20, 1902, pp. 269-302. A Kushana stone-inscription and the question about the origin of the 'Saka era.

Elias J. Bickerman (1944), "Notes on Seleucid and Parthian chronology"

CN. Domitius Corbulo and the Parthian War  - Several sources cited: Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae #9108 [Smallwood #51a]; Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae #232 [Smallwood #51b] (A.D. 64/5); Tacitus Annales 13. 8 (A.D. 54/55); Tacitus Annales 15. 26 (A.D. 63); Frontinus, Strategemata 4. 2.3.

Gregory R. Crane (ed.). The Perseus Project, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu, September, 1997.

Neilson C. Debevoise (1934), "The essential Characteristics of Parthian and Sassanian Glyptic Art"

Denkard, Book 4: The writings of the Dasturs of the Arsacid and Sasanian periods.

Dio (Cassius Dio Cocceianus). Negotiations with Parthia in 30 B.C. (History, 51.18.1-3)

J. F. Elmen, "Some observations on the planchets, striking technique and dies of the Parthian drachm forgeries" in Bulletin on Counterfeits, vol. 19, no. 2 (1994-1995), pp. 34-35

Encyclopaedia Iranica. This is a feasibility study of the electronic publication of Encyclopaedia Iranica through the Internet. Available on-line is Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume VII (Fascicles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). Special font required

Friedrich Hirth, China and the Roman Orient: researches into their ancient and mediæval relations as represented in old Chinese records. Munich: G. Hirth, 1885. Excerpts applicable to Parthia.

John Hood. "Chang Ch'ien's far-ranging diplomacy laid the groundwork for Han conquest -- and the
link between East and West"
. In Military History, vol. 13, no. 1, April 1996. Mentions Chang's meeting with Mithradates II.

Henry H. Howorth, "Some Notes on Coins Attributed to Parthia" in Numismatic Chronicle, series 4, vol. 5 (1905) and vol. 7 (1907).

Prof. A. Invernizzi, "The Greatness that was Parthia." See Dr. Caroline Mawer, lecture review.

Isidore of Charax. Parthian Stations. London, 1914. This is the English translation with commentary by Wilfred H. Schoff.

Josephus (Flavius Josephus). The Works of Flavius Josephus, translated by William Whiston. Includes Antiquities of the Jews, War of the Jews, The Life of Flavius Josephus - Autobiography, Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades and  Flavius Josephus Against Apion. For Parthia, see especially Book XVBook XX.

Julius Africanus. The Extant Writings of Julius Africanus. Includes: I. "The Epistle to Aristides; II. Narrative of Events Happening in Persia on the Birth of Christ" and "Events in Persia: On the Incarnation of Our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ; III. The Extant Fragments of the Five Books of the Chronography of Julius Africanus; IV. The Passion of St. Symphorosa and Her Seven Sons.   See references to Parthia in III, Parts 4 and 17.

Julius Capitolinus. The Life of Antoninus Pius by Julius Capitolinus. Translated by David Magie, Ph. D., for the Loeb Classical Library (1921).

Justin. A Roman description of the Parthians or later Persians from Justin's History of the World.

David Kennedy and Derrick Riley. Rome's Desert Frontier. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. Excerpt of chapters 1 and 2.

Геннадий А. Кошеленко, "Генеалогия первых аршакидов (еще раз о низийском остраке № 1760)"
В книге: Гафуров, Б. Г., Литвинский, Б. А. (ред.), "История и культура народов Средней Азии (древность и средние века)", Москва, Наука, 1976. стр. 31-37.

Koshelenko, G. A., "Genealogia Pervykh Arshakidov" in Istoriya i kultura narodov Srednei Azii: drevnost i srednie veka, B. G. Gafurov and B.A. Litvinsky, eds., (p. 31-37): Moskva, "Nauka", Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1976, pp. 31-37.

Koshelenko, G. A., (Prof. A. Invernizzi, tr.), "La genealogia dei primi arsacidi (ancora sul'ostrakon di Nisa n. 1760)" in Mesopotamia 17 (1982), pp. 133-146.

Amelie Kuhrt and Susan Sherwin-White. From Samarkhand to Sardis. A new approach to the Seleucid empire  (book review by Heckel, Waldemar -- University of Calgary). In: Hellenistic Culture and Society XIII. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993.

The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East  by Benjamin Isaac.  (Book review by David Potter, University of Michigan). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. xiv+492 pgs., 15 figs in text; 5 maps at end.

Lissner, Jonah Gabriel. "Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia".

Jürgen Malitz. "Caesars Partherkrieg", Historia, 1984, vol. 33, 21-59. The complete article in German, with footnotes.

Dr. Caroline Mawer, lecture review: Prof. A. Invernizzi, "The Greatness that was Parthia", a Vladimir G. Lukonin Memorial Lecture, British Museum, London, 10 July 2007.

Robert Payne. "The Parthians", an excerpt from The Splendor of Persia; illustrated with line decorations by Leonard Everett Fisher and with photos. New York: Knopf, 1957. Other chapters also excerpted.

Pliny the Elder. The Natural History of Pliny the Elder, the Latin text as established by Karl Mayhoff in 1897-1908; this version is cross-linked to other useful sites and only Pliny's preface is missing. There is an excellent tabulation of Pliny's references to Parthia (in English) which has links to the on-line Latin text.

Plutarch. Crassus

Bob Reis, "Parthian Coins", 16 Nov 1999. Article on the Collector's Universe website with a brief overview of Parthian history and its coinage.

Frank E. Smitha.  "Persia and its Religious Mix to A.D. 300", in The Ancient World: civilizations and barbarism; philosophies and changing religions; achievements and limitations.

Tacitus (P. Cornelius Tacitus). The Annals, written A.D. 109, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. Includes Book I, A.D. 14, 15; Book II, A.D. 16-19; Book III, A.D. 20-22; Book IV, A.D. 23-28; Book V, A.D. 29-31; Book VI, A.D. 32-37; Book XI, A.D. 47, 48; Book XII, A.D. 48-54; Book XIII, A.D. 54-58; Book XIV, A.D. 59-62; Book XV, A.D. 62-65; Book XVI, A.D. 65, 66. There is also an  alternate source.

Tacitus (P. Cornelius Tacitus). Germania, translated to German by Bastian Späth.

Tacitus (P. Cornelius Tacitus). The Histories, written A.D. 109, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. Includes Books I - IV.

Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, A.D. 155 - after 220). The Apparel of Women, written A.D. 197, which mentions Parthian dress.

Alan Walker, "Forgeries and inventions of Parthian coins : gold coins of Vonones I and silver drachms of Osroes I, Vologases V and VI, Artabanus IV, and of Artabanus IV with the name Tiridates" in Bulletin on Counterfeits, vol. 19, no. 2 (1994-1995), pp. 2-33

If you have any additional references, please send them to me using the feedback page.

This page last updated 13 Mar 2021

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