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This site contains hyperlinks to other web sites and is not responsible for the privacy practices, security or content of those sites.
On this web site, the database reports there are 1420 web pages illustrated with 3222 Parthian coins and 424 Roman coins. The Annotated Parthia Bibliography contains 3454 reference works by 1711 authors. Click here for statistical analysis of the Parthian coin image database
This site complies with the W3C standards HTML 4.01 and CSS level 3. The bottom of each page has buttons to test compliance with these standards. [On some pages the HTML element NOBR (non-breaking text) is used for legacy purposes, but is recognized by all browsers.]
Parthia.com was launched in 1998, designed using the 216 "safe" colors so it could be viewed consistently with any Internet browser. Now that 8-bit color limitations are a thing of the past, this site can be viewed at any color depth. For the best viewing of photographs, use True Color (32-bit color depth) and a high resolution screen for your display.
To allow proper viewing on tablets, smart phones and other devices, this site has been redesigned using responsive website design principles.
This site uses Unicode fonts throughout. Unicode is not perfect for classicists and numismatists. Not all Unicode Greek fonts have the Archaic Koppa () and lunate Digamma (, also called Stigma in Unicode) characters required to express dates engraved on some Greek coins. Also, while Unicode has both a four-bar Sigma () and a lunate Sigma (C), many other Greek letterform variants are not separately encoded. The technology is evolving to allow variant letterforms, but until that technology matures, we must express Greek legends in the standard letterforms so they will be readable by the majority of computers, unlike the obsolete and unlamented Symbol font. This site uses the Segoe UI or Microsoft Sans Serif fonts to represent Greek inscriptions.
But for the best coverage of the Unicode range of characters appropriate to classical studies and numismatics, and for proper rendering of Greek text on this web site, you should have at least one of the following Unicode fonts installed on your computer. It must also be selected as the default font for Greek in your web browser:
Some other Greek font technical issues and font recommendations are described on the web page Unicode Greek Fonts for Numismatists.
In order of preference, one of the following serif fonts will be used automatically throughout this web site: Constantia or Book Antiqua or Georgia or Palatino Linotype or Times New Roman or Times.
This web site is designed using the Constantia font because its design characteristics make it an excellent presentation font for web pages with an "ancient" feel. Constantia is reminiscent of old style typefaces but specifically designed for computers with excellent display qualities. It is not quite a true serif font, but rather a hybrid of serif and sans serif. Constantia is distributed with Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office 2007 and later applications.
Book Antiqua is an excellent "ancient" feel font but was replaced by Palatino Linotype in Microsoft software distributions in 2000. Book Antiqua is available if you installed Microsoft Office 95 through Office 2010.
The Georgia font is part of the Web core fonts package and is preinstalled by default on Windows-based computers through Windows 10 and on all Apple Macintosh systems. The Georgia typeface shares many similarities with Times New Roman, though Georgia is noticeably larger than Times at the same point size.
Palatino Linotype font, the definitive version of Hermann Zapf's famous Palatino also has an "ancient" feel. While not every browser will have it available, Palatino Linotype is widely available on Macs and has been distributed with all Microsoft applications since 2000. Since its design in 1950 it has become one of the world's most widely used typefaces.
Where none of the above fonts is available on your computer, Times New Roman or Times font is substituted. Times New Roman (and the closely related Times) font is ubiquitous on modern computers. This font is supplied with all versions of Microsoft Windows. It is also available on Apple Macintosh computers.
Where none of the above fonts is available, the default font specified for your Internet browser will be used.
The TrueType-OpenType icon is used to identify web pages or links that require a special font. There are two specialty fonts currently available:
Numismatica Pro Fonts - A font that includes archaic and classical Greek letterforms in addition to numismatic control mark and monogram glyphs. See the Numismatica Pro Font web page for more information.
Cardo - Another font (free at the scholarsfonts.net web site) that includes archaic and classical Greek letterforms compatible with Numismatica Pro. However, it does not include numismatic control mark and monogram glyphs.
Adobe Type 1 fonts (also known as PostScript, PS1, T1, Adobe Type 1, Multiple Master, or MM) are a deprecated format within the font industry, replaced by the larger glyph sets and more robust technical possibilities of OpenType fonts. While the use of Type 1 fonts is still supported by some operating systems, it is not supported in many environments crucial to modern platforms, including web browsers and mobile operating systems. The lack of support for Unicode information in Type 1 fonts limits their ability to support extended language character sets.
If you received a warning, don't see a message or possibly don't even see the white box, you should:
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This site previously used Adobe Flash™ for several interactive graphics. As of January 1, 2021, Adobe Flash Player is no longer supported and has been discontinued by Adobe. The interactive graphics have temporarily been replaced with JPEG images while we work to provide the new standard HTML5 animations.
The contents of this site web site are for your personal, educational, non-commercial use only, are Copyright ©1998-2021 by Edward C. D. Hopkins and may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Images on this web site are Copyright ©1998-2021 by Edward C. D. Hopkins or the copyrighted intellectual property of individuals or entities who specifically permit their use on this web site. No image may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner(s).
I respect the intellectual property of all parties. If a user or other third party believes that its content has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, that user or third party should provide me with the following information pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA): (a) an electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest; (b) a description of the copyrighted work that has been infringed; (c) a description of where the allegedly infringing material is located on the Website; (d) the affected user or third party's address, telephone number and email address; (e) a statement by the affected user or third party that he or she has a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent or the law; and (f) a statement by the affected user or third party, under penalty of perjury, that the above information is accurate and that such user or third party is the copyright owner or is otherwise authorized to act on the copyright owner's behalf.
This page last updated 13 Mar 2021