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Geyer, T.
"Tiridates" (1937)
In: RE. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. XII Hbd.
1937, p. 1437 ff.
 
Ghanimati, Soroor
Kuh-e Khwaja: A major Zoroastrian temple complex in Sistan (Iran) (2001)
2001, 350 p.
Abstract: The present study offers an architectural analysis of the buildings at Kuh-e Khwāja, an early Zoroastrian temple complex in Iranian Sistān, and seeks to clarify the date and the functions of this uniquely dramatic ancient site. Sistān holds a long-standing repute as a region with early and important legendary and Zoroastrian associations. Prior efforts to date the monuments at Kuh-e Khwāja had suggested that the structures in question were constructed at several different times. Previous proposed chronologies, however, were never underpinned by scientific tests: i.e., no Carbon 14 tests were ever conducted. Accordingly, questions that deal with the exact historical setting of the site, and the possible functions that might be attributed to its various buildings, were hitherto never clearly defined. This dissertation represents an attempt to reconstruct the history of the site. The goal has been to study the site and its architectural remains as a totality, and to look at the broader social and political context in order to see how the site might have functioned as a major religious center. The architectural analysis constitutes the core of the dissertation. It takes into account the site, its origins and development in term of its art and architecture, which took place over three distinctive historical periods. These three periods were based essentially on two new sets of Carbon 14 determinations in: (a) the interval A.D. 80–240 ± 50 (late Parthian to early Sasanian times), and (b) the interval A.D. 540–650 ± 50 (late Sasanian to early Islamic times). In line with these considerations it is argued that the site of Kuh-e Khwāja functioned as a continuous religious center, and that its architecture, drawn from a combination of Eastern Iranian and Greco-Roman elements, served as one major model for subsequent religious construction in Iran. Moreover, the principle complex has been identified as a major place of pilgrimage, and it is suggested that Kuh-e Khwāja provided, inter alia, training for the priesthood, in an early erbedestān or Zoroastrian “Priestly College”—a center which may itself be seen to have anticipated the parallel role of the early Islamic madrasa.
 
Ghilain, A.
Essai sur la langue parthe. Son système verbal d'après les textes manichéens du Turkestan oriental (1939)
In: Bibliothèque du Muséon v. 9
Louvain: Institut Orientaliste, 1966, 155 p.
Abstract: Reprint of 1939 edition. See review: Walter B. Henning, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, X /2 (1940), pp. 508-9.
 
Ghirshman, Roman
"Inscription du Monument de Chapour ler à Chapour" (1936)
Revue des Arts Asiatiques, 1936, vol. 10, p. 123-129.
 
"The Town which Three Hundred Elephants rased to the Ground: The Newly Excavated fourth Level of Susa and the Partho-Seleucid Necropolis" (1950)
The Illustrated London News, 1950, no. 7 Oct, p. 571-573.
 
"Un bas-relief d'Artaban V avec inscription en pehlvi arsacide" (1950)
In: Monuments et memoires publiés par l'acadèmie des I.inscriptions et Belles-Lettres de la Fondation Eug. Piot, [Monuments Piot] 44
Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1950, p. 97-107.
Abstract: This stele was found in 1947 and bears an inscription dated A.D. 215.
 
"Un bas-relief d'Artaban V avec inscription en pehlvi arsacide" (1950)
In: Actes du XXIe congrès des Orientalistes, Paris, 1949
Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1950, p. 153-155.
 
"Quelques intailles du Musée de Calcutta : à Légendes en Tokharien, Pehlvi Arsacide et Pehlvi Sassanide" (1952)
In: Miles, George C. (ed.), Archaeologica Orientalia In Memoriam Ernst Herzfeld
1952, p. 102-115.
Abstract: Engraved gems. Collections Indian Museum, Calcutta.
 
Cinq campagnes de fouilles à Suse, 1946-1951 (1952)
Paris: 1952
 
Iran from the earliest times to the Islamic conquest (1954)
In: Arts of Mankind Series, Arntzen & Rainwater I78a
Middlesex: Harmondsworth, 1954, 368 p.
Abstract: Chapt 6, "The Parthians', pp. 243-288. Plate 40 has 8 Parthian coins.

See review: Edith Porada, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 19, No. 1 (1956) , pp. 92-94.
 
"Trois Monnaies Parthes Inedites" (1958)
In: Ingholt, Harald (ed.), Centennial Publication of the American Numismatic Society
New York: American Numismatic Society, 1958, p. 278-284.
Abstract: Three coins are described, a Sellwood (2nd ed.) Mithradates II drachm; a gold "dinar" of Mithradates II (similar to Sellwood 27.1), and an Ardavazdes drachm (Artabanus IV, Sellwood 89.4). The "Artavazdes" was sold in Lanz 102, May 2001 as lot 328.
 
Sept mille ans d'art en Iran, Exposition Paris, Petit Palais (octobre 1961 - janvier 1962) (1961)
Paris: 1961, 34+209 p.
Abstract: Introduction historique par Roman Ghirshman.

Catalogue:
Epoque préhistorique. Proto-histoire iranienne. Art d'Amlach. Bronzes du Louristan. Le trésor de Ziwiyé. Epoque achénimide. Epoque parthe. Epoque sassanide.

Introduction a la période islamique, par gaston Wiet. Conquete de l'Iran par les arabes. Les dynasties iraniennes des IX-X° siecles. Ghaznévides et Bouydes. Les Seljoukides. Les mongols. Les Séfévides. L'époque moderne. La dynastie Pahlavi.

There are 40 Parthian items catalogued, photographs of 9 are shown.
 
Persian art, the Parthian and Sassanian dynasties, 249 B.C.-A.D. 651. Translated [from Iran: Parthes et Sassanides] by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons (1962)
In: The Arts of mankind, 3
New York: Golden Press, 1962, 401 p.
Abstract: See review by Deborah Thompson, The Art Bulletin, Vol 46 (1964), pp. 95-97.
 
7000 Jahr Kunst in Iran (Ausstellung Villa Hügel, Essen, 16 Februar bis 24 April 1962) (1962)
Essen: 1962
 
Iran, Parthians and Sassanians (1962)
London: Thames & Hudson, 1962
Abstract: German edition as Iran, Parther und Sasiniden. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1962. See review by Kurt Erdmann in Gnomon. Kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft. - Bd. 36 (1964). - S. 485-493; review by Deborah Thompson in Art Bulletin, 46, 1964, pp. 95-97.
 
"Notes iraniennes XI: Le rhyton en Iran" (1962)
Artibus Asiae, 1962, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 57-80.
 
7000 Anni d'Arte Iranica (Mostra Palazzo Reale, Milano, Maggio-Giugno 1963) (1963)
Milano: 1963
 
"Bard-è Nechandeh" (1964-1965)
Syria, 1964, vol. XLI & XLII, p. 301ff, 289ff.
 
La civiltà persiana (1972)
Torino: Einaudi, 1972
 
"Une tetradrachme de d'Andragoras de la collection de M. Foroughi" (1974)
In: Kouymjian, Dickran K. (ed.), Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconography, Epigraphy, and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Miles.
Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1974, p. 1-8.
Abstract: Essay on the origins of Andragoras and the founding of the Parthian Empire; also discussed, a previously unpublished tetradrachm which matches one in the British Museum and is similar to two others, one in the BM and another at the Hermitage.
 
"Les scènes d'investiture royale dans l'art rupestre des Sassanides et leur origine" (1975)
Syria, 1975, vol. 52, p. 119-29.
 
"Notes iraniennes XVII: Un bas-relief parthe de la collection Foroughi" (1975)
Artibus Asiae, 1975, vol. 37, p. 229-239.
 
"Terrasses Sacrées de Bard-è Néchandeh et de Masjid-i Solaiman" Vols I & II (1976)
In: Mémoires de la délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan, 45
Paris: 1976
 
"La Porte Noire de Besançon et la prise de Ctésiphon" (1976)
In: Temporini, Hildegard & Haase, Wolfgang (eds.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung.
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1976, p. 215-218.
Abstract: Teil II: Principat. Bd. 9 (1. Halbband). Politische Geschichte (Provinzen und Randvölker: Mesopotamien, Armenien, Iran, Südarabien, Rom und der Ferne Osten).
 
"La ceinture en Iran" (1979)
Iranica Antiqua, 1979, vol. 14, p. 167-196.
 
"Persian Art in Parthian and Sasanian Times" (1981)
In: Huyghe, René (ed.), Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantime & Medieval Art
New York: Excalibur Books, 1981
Abstract: Originally published in french as "L'art Et L'Homme
 
Gibson, McGuire
"Coins as a tool in archaeological surface survey" (1974)
In: Kouymjian, Dickran K. (ed.), Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconography, Epigraphy, and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Miles.
Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1974, p. 9-14.
Abstract: Discusses the use by archaelogists of pre-Islamic coins where dating pottery sherds is difficult; also discusses coins (or their absence) in establishing political presence. No coins are illustrated.
 
"Parthian Seal Style: A Contribution From Nippur" (1994)
Mesopotamia, 1994, vol. 29
Abstract: Peggy Sanders completed a series of hand drawings of Parthian seals for inclusion in the article.
 
Gibson, McGuire & McMahon, Augusta
Lost Heritage: Antiquities Stolen from Iraq's Regional Museums, Fascicle 1 (1992)
Chicago: American Association for Research in Baghdad, 1992, xii+54 p.
 
Gignoux, Philippe
Glossaire des inscriptions pehlevies et parthes (1972)
In: Corpus inscriptionum Iranicarum. Supplementary series, v.1
London: P. Lund, Humphries, 1972, vi+68 p.
Abstract: Part one of the book contains Pehlevi inscriptions; Part two contains Parthian inscriptions including (1) Documents de Nisa, (2) Parchemin d'Awroman, (3) Inscription de Sar Pul, (4) Artaban V à Suse, (6) Inscriptions d'Armazi, (7) Kal i Jangal, (8) Ardašir I à Naqš i Rustam, (9-13) Šabuhr I des quelques locations, (14) Narseh à Paikuli. It does not, however, cover the inscriptions on coins.
 
Iran ancien : actes du XXIXe Congrès international des orientalistes (1975)
In: Actes du XXIXe Congrès international des orientalistes, Paris, 1973
Paris: L'Asiathèque, 1975, iv+58 p.
 
"Noms propres sassanides en moyen-perse épigraphique" (1986)
In: Mayrhofer, Manfred & Schmitt, Rüdiger (eds.), Iranisches Personennamenbuch II/2
Vienna: 1986
Abstract: Review: P.O. Skjaero in Journal of the American Oriental Society 109/1, 1989, pp. 127-129.
 
"Ostraca, papyri et parchemins -- Histoire économique de l'Iran ancien" (1999)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Empires Perses d'Alexandre aux Sassanides
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 1999, no. 243, p. 24-25.
Abstract: Parmi les sources épigraphiques dont on dispose pour la connaissance de l'Iran pré-islamique, les ostraca (tessons ou morceaux de jarres brisées) et les papyri (feuilles de papyrus utilisées en Egypte et en Mésopotamie, à ne pas confondre avec les parchemins ou peaux animales dont on se sert davantage en Iran) ne sont pas négligeables. Quoique sans aucune valeur d'un point de vue esthétique, ces documents constituent pour l'historien une réelle richesse documentaire, en matière économique spécialement, d'autant plus que les Iraniens n'ont à date ancienne presque rien écrit, mises à part les inscriptions rupestres gravées par les rois achéménides et sassanides, surtout dans le Fârs et la Susiane.
 
"Zoroastrisme et mazdéisme" (1999)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Empires Perses d'Alexandre aux Sassanides
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 1999, no. 243, p. 71.
 
Gilbert, D. L.
Magi: A Novel (2007)
Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2007
Abstract: The premise of Magi: A Novel is that the magi of Christmas fame were from the priestly caste of Parthia. I believe the user group and those interested in Parthian culture will enjoy the historical accuracy of the book. King Phraates, Queen Thea Musa and Prince Phraataces have prominent roles in the novel. The chief setting of the story in the early chapters is the city of Ctesiphon. Parthian culture, religion, politics, dress, customs, warfare, death rituals, language, coins, geography, and personal names are all described with care and authenticity. The research to complete the manuscript took ten years.
 
Gilbert, Frank
The World: Historical and Actual... (1882)
New York: W. M. Farrar, 1882, xxiv+23+712 p.
Abstract: Full title: The world: historical and actual. What has been and what is. Our globe in its relations to others worlds, and before man. Ancient nations in the order of their antiquity. The middle ages and their darkness. The present peoples of the earth...together with useful and instructive charts, reference tables of history, finance, commerce and literature from B.C. 1500, to the present time... by Frank Gilbert.
 
Gippert, Jost
Iranica Armeno-Iberica. Studien zu den iranischen Lehnwörtern im Armenischen und Georgischen (1993)
In: Sitzungsberichte der Österrreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosoph.-histor. Klasse 606. 2 vol.
Vienna: 1993
 
Glück, Heinrich & Diez, Ernst
Die Kunst des Islam, vol. 5 (1925)
Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1925, p. 121-127.
Abstract: Although the title indicates a study of Islamic art, there are seven pages of plates for the Parthian period (mostly Hatra) and six plates for the Sasanian period.
 
Glueck, Nelson
Deities and Dolphins. The Story of the Nabataeans (1965)
New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965, 650 p.
Abstract: Over 400 photographs. Chronology. The story of a gifted and artistic people, the cultures they were molded by, the arts they developed, the likenesses with and differences from their most immediate neighbors, the Judaeans, and the tightrope they walked between Rome and Parthia.
 
Gnoli, Gherardo
The idea of Iran : an essay on its origin (1989)
In: Serie orientale Roma vol. 62
Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1989, 216 p.
 
Gnoli, T.
"C. Iulius Mygdonius. Un Parto a Ravenna" (2006)
In: Panaino, Antonio & Piras, Andrea (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Societas Iranologica Europæa, Ravenna, 6-11 Oct 2003. Vol. I
Ancient & Middie Iranian Studies
Milano: 2006, p. 461-470.
 
Gobineau, Arthur, comte de
Histoire des Perses d'apres les auteurs Orientaux, Grecs et Latins et particulierement d'apres les manuscrits Orientaux inedits (1869)
In: 2 volumes
Paris: Henri Plon, 1869
 
The world of the Persians. Texts by J.-A. de Gobineau (1971)
London: J. Gifford, 1971, 157 p.
Abstract: This book covers, as best it can, from primitive life through the Sasanian empire. Great photographs throughout. Also published in Geneva, Switzerland by Minerva S.A. 1971.
 
Göbl, Robert
"Eine neuerworbene Sammlung mittelasiatischer Münzen" (1965-1966)
Jahrbuch des Bernischen Historischen Museums, 1966, vol. 45-46, p. 185-223.
Abstract: A catalog is published of a collection of 704 Near and Middle Eastern coins from Alexander the Great to the 9th century A.D., recently acquired by the Historical Museum in Berne. There are coins of the Seleucids, the Greek Kings of Bactria and India, the Sakas, the Pahlavas, the Arsacids, the Sasanids and the Umayyad governors, of Tabaristan, Bukhara, Sogdiana, Kushan, of the Kushano-Sasinids, the Iranian Huns and India.
 
Dokumente Zur Geschichte Der Iranischen Hunnen In Baktrien Und Indien (1967)
Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1967
 
"Le Trésor Monétaire de Qunduz by Raoul Curiel & Gérard Fussman" (Review) (1970)
Gnomon, 1970, vol. 42, no. 6 (Oct), p. 634-636.
 
"Zwei moderne Fälschugen: Persis und Ostkelten" (1972)
Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Numis-matischen Gesellschaft, 1972, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 76-78.
Abstract: Göbl discusses a modern forgery of a coin of Persis.
 
Antike Numismatik, vol. 1 & 2 (1978)
Munich: Battenberg, 1978
Abstract: In 2 volumes.
 
"Die Titel der ersten beiden Sâsâniden auf ihren Münzen" [The titles of the first 2 Sasanians on their coins] (1983)
Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1983, no. 120, p. 290-298.
Abstract: Dr. Göbl disagrees with previous readings by Ghirshman and Mosig-Walburg of the legends on the coins of the first two Sasanians.
 
Bibliography - Page 23

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