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Morgan, Jacques de & Churchill, Dominiqu Gillain (tr.)
Ancient Persian numismatics: Elymais (1930)
New York: Attic Books, 1976, 62 p.
Abstract: Good drawings with transliterated legends. This is a page-for-page English translation by Dominiqu Gillain Churchill of the Elymais section of the 2nd fascicle of Part III of Babelon's Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines, the fascicle which contains de Morgan's work on ancient Persian numismatics entitled "Perside - Elymaide - Characene" (1930, 198 pp.). The translation is from pages 422 - 484 in the original. Included also are the 5 plates for Elymais (illustrating 126 coins), taken from the Part III, Vol 1 fascicle "Planches" in the original work. Reprints reported, 1971, 1976, 1979.
 
Morizot, P.
"A Parthian Veteran in Southern Numidia" [but title in French] (1988)
Comptes rendus de l'académie des inscriptions, 1988, no. JAN-MAR, p. 44-50.
 
Mørkholm, Otto
"A posthumous issue of Antiochus IV" (1960)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1960, tome/ser. 6, vol. 20, p. 25-30.
 
Graekerne I Orienten (1962)
Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark, 1962
Abstract: Illustrated with black-and-white photos of Greek, Parthian, Bactrian and Indian coins.
 
"A Greek coin hoard from Susiana" (1965)
Acta Archæologica, 1965, vol. 36, p. 127-156.
Abstract: The hoard, found in 1958 or 1959, consists of about 200 silver tetradrachms, 124 of which are listed. The burial date, ca. 140 B.C., has implications for eastern Seleucid issues down to this date. Some of these coins are ascribed to a new mint at Antiochia, later known as Charax Spasinou. See the review by W. Schwabacher in Hamburger Beitrage sur Numismatik, vol. 7, no. 21 (1967), pp. 282-283.
 
"Arsaciden-Münzen. Katalog der Sammlung Petrowicz by Alexander von Petrowicz" (book review) (1968-1969)
Hamburger Beiträge zur Numismatik, 1972, vol. 7, no. 22-23, p. 742.
Abstract: Review of the reprint: Graz, Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1968.
 
"A coin of Ataxerxes III" (1974)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1974, tome/ser. 7, vol. 14, p. 1-8.
 
"A hoard of coins from Characene (No. 77)" (1978)
In: Coin Hoards, vol. 4
1978, p. 25-27.
Abstract: Hoard #77 is a small hoard of some 73 coins of Characene which appeared on the market in 1976. All were struck under Attambelus I (47/46-25/24 B.C.) and Thionesius I (25/24-20/19 B.C.), for both of whom new dated issues are recorded. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986]
 
"Greece to India" (1979)
In: Carson, R. A. G., Berghaus, Peter & Lowick, Nicholas (eds.), A Survey of numismatic research : 1972-1977
Berne: International Numismatic Commission, 1979, p. 60-97.
Abstract: For Parthia, see section VII. "East of the Euphrates". While a review of literature published, Mørkholm adds much of his own opinion and commentary.
 
"The Parthian Coinage of Seleucia on the Tigris c.90-55 B.C." (1980)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1980, tome/ser. 7, vol. 20, p. 33-47.
Abstract: The tetradrachm coinage of Seleucia on the Tigris is arranged in a chronological sequence by purely numismatic criteria. It is arguued that the evidence derived from coins is more important than the sparse written evidence for reconstructing the so-called Parthian "Dark Age," the period between the death of Mithradates II and the firm establishment of Orodes II as king of the Parthian empire. The attribution to different rulers is still a matter of speculation. [Author]

Using numismatic criteria only, Mørkholm reached a different conclusion from A. Simonetta [QT 7 (1978), 95-119] about the number and sequence of kings at Seleucia on the Tigris during the Parthian "dark age", c. 90 B.C. and c. 55 B.C., excluding within his chronological sequence both Vonones and Pacorus. He acknowledges that the attribution of coins to different rulers is still much a matter of speculation, but argues that the written evidence for the period is so fragmentary that the most reliable documents are the coins. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194]
 
Mørkholm, Otto & Kromann, Anne
"Persien mønter gennem 2500 år" [Les Monniaes de la Perse durant 2500 ans, in Danish] (1971)
In: Persien-Iran
Copenhagen: 1971
 
Morris, Robert
"Some Coins of Characene" (1887)
American Journal of Numismatics, 1887, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 11.
 
Mortimer, Ernest
"Mark Anthony in Parthia 36 BC" (1995)
Battlefields, 1995, vol. 1, no. 1 (July)
Abstract: This is a hypothetical scenario based on Mark Anthony's invasion of Pathia in 36 BC.
 
Moses of Chorene (Moses Khorenat'si)
Epitome commentariorum Moysis Armeni de origine et Regibus Armenorum et Parthorum (1723)
Stockholm: 1723
 
History of the Armenians / Moses Khorenatsi ; translation and commentary on the literary sources by Robert W. Thomson (1980)
In: Harvard Armenian texts and studies, 4
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980
Abstract: Translation of Patmowtiwn Hayots; 1978; 1980 printing
 
Mosser, Sawyer McArthur
"Roman imperial titles. III : Germanicus, Britannicus, Parthicus, etc." (1935)
Coin Collector's Journal, 1935, tome/ser. NS, vol. 2, p. 62-64.
 
Mousavi, Mahmoud
"Kuh-E Khadjeh, un complexe religieux de l'est Iranien" (1999)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Empires Perses d'Alexandre aux Sassanides
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 1999, no. 243, p. 81-84.
 
Mousheghian, Anahit & Depeyrot, Georges
Hellenistic and Roman Armenian coinage (1st c. BC - 1st c. AD) = Hellenistakan k Hromeakan Darashrzani Haykakan metaghadramner (Mt'a. 1d.-Mt. 1d.) (1999)
In: Collection Moneta ; 15
Wetteren: Moneta, 1999, 256 p.
 
Mousheghian, Anahit; Callataÿ, François de & Depeyrot, Georges
"Un nouveau trésor pour Tigrane II le Grand d'Arménie: un complément méconnu à IGCH 1813 (1922, environs de Téhéran)" (1998)
Bulletin du Cercle d'Etudes numismatiques, 1998, vol. 35, p. 16-20.
 
Mousheghian, Khatchatur
"Hin Hayastani dramayin srjanarut'yan Patmut' Yanic'" [The history of monetary circulation in ancient Armenia] (1970)
Patma-Banasiriakan Handes, 1970, no. 50, p. 65-93.
Abstract: A study is made of the coins in circulation in Armenia from the 5th century B.C. to the 3rd century A.D. Achaemenid, early Armenian (Orontid dynasty), and Macedonian coins are mentioned. The coinage of the Artaxiads is investigated and Bedoukian's classification (ANSMN 14) is adopted. The Roman coins of this period withthe legends ARMENIA and ARMENIACUS are discussed along with some Parthia coins relating to Armenia. [Paul D. Bedoukian]
 
Monetnye kladi Armenii. I. [Coin hoards of Armenia I] (1973)
Erevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1973, 184 p.
Abstract: In Armenian with Russian and English summaries. A hoard from the village of Sarnakunk (Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards No. 1746) discovered in Armenia in 1945, containing silver coins of the Roman Republic, Seleucia, Parthia, cities of Phoenicia, Armenia, Cappadocia, Pontus, Alexander the Great and some cistophori, is described. Hitherto unknown coins from this hoard, which now totals 372 issues, are discussed. The latest coin dates from 31 B.C.
 
Mousheghian, Khatchatur; Mousheghian, Anahit & Depeyrot, Georges
History and coin finds in Armenia : Antiquity (2000)
In: Series: Inventory of coin finds in Armenia, Part I, Moneta 17
2000, 184 p.
Abstract: Contains a table of Parthain coin finds in Armenia notable for the small quantities found; almost all finds listed are single drachms or bronzes, no tetradrachms. However, the range of rulers represented by the finds is extensive including 18 rulers from Mithradates I to Vologases III. [ECDH]

Khatchatur Mousheghian prepared a publication of hoards and site finds from Armenia. Completed, with new studies, this documentation is now published. In this book are published catalogues of hoards: Artashat (70 BC and 59 BC); Armenia (55 BC); Artik (45 BC); Parakar (38 BC); Sarnakounk (25 BC); Tovuz (25 BC); Aparan (2 BC); Gurmi and Artashat (1st c. BC); Echmiadzin (175); Garni (192); Oshakan (3rd c.); Yerevan (5th c.). A list of site finds in Armenia (coins from 4th c. BC to 5th c. AD) and a list of Armenian coin finds out of the actual Republic of Armenia are given.

Two studies complete the general analysis of coin circulation. One is devoted to hoarding in the first Century BC (with Sarnakounk hoard) and the second is devoted to the study of second Century denarii hoards in the Roman Empire (with Echmiadzin and Garni hoards). These two studies summarize all the new studies about silver coin hoards and give new interpretations of this kind of coin circulation. [Publisher]
 
Muazzin Jami, Muhammad Mahdi
Adab-i pahlavani : mutalaahi dar tarikh-i adab-i dirinah-i Irani az Zartusht ta Ashkaniyan. (2000)
In: Nashr-i Qatrah, 1379 [2000]
Tehran: 2000
 
Mueller, J. W.
"Quelques informations sur les calendriers du Pont et des Parthes d' après les monnaies" (1998)
Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, 1998, vol. 53e année, no. 7 (Sep), p. 189-191.
 
Mukherjee, Bratindra Nath
Nana on Lion. A Study on Kushana Numismatic Art (1969)
Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1969, xii+159 p.
Abstract: Contents: Introduction, Devices, Notes, Style & Technique; Rulers, Artists & Environment; Epilogue; Appendices: The Prototype of an Obverse Devise of Kushana Coinage; The Deity of Pushkalavati; The Interest of the Kushana Empire in Indo-Roman Trade - an Illustration; The Deity on a Silver Bowl in the Oxus Treasure; An Intaglio Seal from Peshawar; The Hermaphrodite Figure on a Silver Plate; Catalogue of Objects Illustrated.
 
An Agrippan source; a study in Indo-Parthian history (1969)
Calcutta: Pilgrim Publishers, 1969, xiv+341 p.
 
"Some observations on the metrology of the Indo-Greek and Scytho-Parthian coins" (1970)
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1970, vol. 32, p. 144-149.
Abstract: The indo-Greeks struck coins in northwestern India on a weight standard different from the Attic one which were meant to meet local demand for coinage on a locally known standard and relate the intrinsic value of silver coins of Bactria with that of silver issues in northwestern India. [P. L. Gupta]
 
"The dates on certain coins of Sanabares" (1970)
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1970, vol. 32, p. 199-200.
Abstract: Dates in Pahlavi on the coins of Sanabares which are attributed to the Seistan area are reckoned in the Arsacid era. Sanabares was apparently a ruler of Merv, whose coinage may be related to the Gondophares group. [P. L. Gupta]
 
"The location of the mint of some Indo-Parthian coins (1971)
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1971, vol. 33, p. 110-111.
Abstract: Seistan is identified as the mint of some of the copper and billon coins of Gondophares, which bear a Greek legend only and show obv.: seated figure, and rev.: winged Nike. [P. L. Gupta]
 
"An interesting coin of a Parthian (?) ruler called Bannega" (1974)
Monthly Bulletin of the Asiatic Society, 1974, no. August, p. 7-8.
Abstract: A debased silver coin with obv.: bearded bust and Parthian legend [Sa Banaga] meaning King (?) Banaga and rev.: male seated on throne holding bow with legend in corrupt Greek, of which only part is legible, and read as BANNEGA, was struck on a weight standard of later Parthian drachms and issued in the era of Vologases I in an area where imperial Parthian drachms with this device circulated. It is not certain whether the ruler was an independent king or acknowledged the nominal suzerainty of an Arsacid overlord. Two other coins of this ruler are mentioned. [P. L. Gupta]
 
"A Variety of Silver Coin of Sanabares" (1981)
Numismatic Digest, 1981, vol. 5 Pt. 2, p. 19-22.
Abstract: An Indo-Parthian coin bears the name of Sanabares in Pahlavik or Arsacid script on the obverse but does not carry it in the Greek legend on the reverse. Rather, Toggidata appears there. Thus, the piece may represent a joint rule. (P.L. Gupta)
 
"An Interesting Scytho-Parthian Coin" (1983)
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1983, vol. 45, p. 27-30.
Abstract: One of the 29 Scytho-Parthian coins which were found in the Swat region of Pakistan and which were published earlier by G. Le Rider (Revue de Etudes Gracques Vol 80 [1967] p. 331) is presented. It depicts an enthroned female, the first appearance of a Scytho-Parthian queen, with the Greek inscription Badillddex Qeotropou Macenex on the obverse and a standing Zeus withthe Kharoshthi legend Rajatirajsa Mahatas Moasa. The hoard also contained 16 specimens of Maues with Zeus on the obverse and a winged Nike on the reverse. The remaining dozen pieces were assigned to Vonones and Spalahora. (P.L. Gupta)
 
"The Stathmoi-Parthikoi and the Greek culture in Arachosia" (1992)
In: Yavanika. Journal of the Indian soc. for Greek and Roman studies, vol. 2
1992, p. 58-60.
 
"Artistry and realism : coinage of the Indo-Greeks and Scytho-Parthians" (1994)
In: A treasury of Indian coins
Bombay: 1994, p. 19-28.
 
Müller, F. W. K.
Handschriften-Reste in Estrangelo-Schrift aus Turfan, Chinesisch-Turkistan (1904)
In: Also see: II, Anhang zu Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1904.
Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1904, p. 348-352.
 
Munster, Sebastian
Neuw India : mit vilen anstossenden Lendern besunder Scythia, Parthia, Arabia, Persia, etc. (1545)
In: S. Munster's Cosmographia ... 1545, pl. xxxi
Basel: Henrich Petri, 1545
Abstract: 1 map; 26 x 35 cm
 
La cosmographie vniverselle de tovt le monde (1575)
In: 3 volumes
Paris: Chez M. Sonnius, 1575
Abstract: Full title: La cosmographie vniverselle de tovt le monde. En laquelle, suiuant les auteurs plus dignes de foy, sont au vray descriptes toutes les parties habitables, & non habitables de la terre, & de la mer leurs affectes et choses qu'elles produisent puis la description et peinture topographique des régions, la différence de l'air de chacun pays, d'où aduient diuersité tant de la complexion des hommes que des figures des bestes brutes. Et encor, l'origine, noms ou appellations tant modernes qu'anciennes, & description de plusieurs villes, citez & isles, auec leurs plantz, & pourtraictz, & sur tout de la France, non encor iusques à présent veus ny imprimez. S'y voyent aussi d'auantage, les origines, accroissemens, & changemens des monarchies, empires, royaumes, estatz, & républiques: ensemble les moeurs, façons de viure, loix, coustumes, & religion de tous les peuples, & natiõs du monde & la succession des papes, cardinaux, archevêques et evêques, chacun en leur diocèse, tant anciens que modernes. Avec plusieurs autres choses, le sommaire desquelles se void en la page suivante.

Autour en partie Mvnster, mais beaucoup plus augmentée, ornée & enrichie, par Francois de Belle-Forest, Comingeois, tant de ses recerches, comme de l'aide de plusieurs memoires enouyez de diuerses villes de France, par hommes amateurs de l'histoire & de leur patrio. Avec trois tables, l'une des plantz, et pourtraictz des isles, et des villes. La seconde des titres & chapitres. Et la troisiòme, de tous les noms propres, et des matières cõprises en tout l'oeuvre

Page 1292 describes Parthia.
 
Münzer, F.
"Q. Labienus" (1924)
In: RE 23
1924, p. 258-260.
 
"Silaces" (1927)
In: RE A 5
1927, 1 p.
 
Muscarella, Oscar White
Bronze and iron : ancient Near Eastern artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (1988)
New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988, 501 p.
Abstract: Beautifully executed, this volume catalogs more than six hundred bronze and iron artifacts in the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art of The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Each object is illustrated and described and then discussed in terms of its formal and stylistic aspects, cultural background, function, and chronology. [Publisher]
 
The Lie Became Great: The forgery of ancient Near Eastern cultures (2000)
Groningen: Styx, 2000, 540 p.
Abstract: A critical analysis of Roman Ghirshman's work. Includes mention of several items previously believed Parthian now considered modern forgeries.
 
Musche, Brigitte
Vorderasiatischer Schmuck zur Zeit der Arsakiden und der Sasaniden (1988)
In: Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 7, Bd. 1, Abschn. 2B, Lfg. 5
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988, xi+350 p.
Abstract: This augmented doctoral dissertation (with Leo Trümpelmann, Ludwig Maximilians University) is primarily a typological and historical catalog of recovered and represented jewelry in the Palmyrene and neighboring regions during the Parthian years. [B. Goldman] See reviews: Invernizzi A., Mesopotamia 24 (1989); Bernard Goldman, Bulletin of the Asia Institute, vol. 4 (1990), pp. 331-332. Many drawings of Parthian jewelry, but no photographic plates.
 
Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli
[Hadrianeum (Roma), piedistallo, ora al Museo di Napoli, probabilmente pertinente alla decorazione della cella, con la rappresentazione della Parthia] [materiale grafico] (1957)
Naples: Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli, 1957
Abstract: 1 stampa fotografica; 22 x 18 cm.
Piedistallo rinvenuto al tempo di Paolo III (1534-1550). Tempio del Divo Adriano (Roma)
 
Museo Civico di Torino
Capolavori del Museo di Baghdad (1965)
1965
Abstract: Exhibition held also in Cologne, Germany. Photographs by Stadtbildstelle, Cologne (A. Dopperfeld, R. Zimmerman); G. Rampazzi, Turin.
 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Dept. of Classical Art
Romans & barbarians (1976)
Boston: The Museum, 1976, xvi+255 p.
Abstract: Catalog of an exhibition held at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, December 17, 1976-February 27, 1977, supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. No. C21(page 82) is a Trajan denarius picturing Parthamaspates on reverse with REX PARTHIS DATVS legend. Parthian art is found in catalog items 57, a Parthian portrait head sculpture; 58, a belt buckle; and 59, three figurines.
 
Mussche, H. F.
Les Portraits des Séleucides (1964)
Istanbul: 1964
 
Musti, D.
"Syria and the East: 175-220" (1984)
In: Walbank, F. W., Astin, A. E., Frederiksen, M. W. & Ogilvie, R. M. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 7(1): The Hellenistic World
Cambridge: 1984, 2 ed., p. 203 ff.
 
Nabi, Khan A.
"The Coins of Pakistan" (1964)
Pakistan Quarterly, 1964, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 32-39, 69-70.
 
Nadooshan, F., Sadeghi, H. & Moosavi, S.
"The Impact of Political-Economic Conditions of the Parthian Period on Composition of Silver Coins" (2004)
Journal of the Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society, 2004, vol. 5, no. 3 (Sep), p. 131-136.
Abstract: XRF spectroscopy used in scientific analysis of 11 Parthian coins. Unfortunately, the 11 coins pictured are printed poorly, but spectroscopy results are given for them.
 
Bibliography - Page 43

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