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Oelsner, Joachim (continued)
Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit (1986)
1986, vol. 3, p. 25-45.
Abstract: A comprehensive survey of Hellenistic-period cuneiform tablets of all genres.
 
Olajos, T.
"Le monument du triomphe de Trajan en parthie. Quelques renseignements inobservées" (Jean d'Ephèse. Anthologie Grecque XVI 72) (1981)
Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1982, vol. 29, p. 379 ff.
 
Olbrycht, Marek J.
"Some problems of the Historical Geography of Turkmenistan in the Hellenistic and Arsacid Periods" (Problemy istoricheskoi geografii Turkmenistana v ellinisticheskii i arshakidskii periody, in Russian) (1992)
In: Annanepesov, M. A. (ed.), Merv v drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii Vostoka III: Merv i parfianskaia epokha
Ashgabad: 1992, p. 21-22.
 
"Some remarks on Hellenistic influence upon the fortification of Northeastern Iran in the Arsacid period" (1992-1993)
Folia Orientalia, 1993, vol. 29, p. 131-151.
 
"Die Kultur der Steppengebiete und die Beziehungen zwischen Nomaden und der selßhaften Bevolkerung (Der arsakidische Iran und die Nomadenvölker)" (1996)
In: Wiesehöfer, Josef (ed.), Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse - The Arsacid Empire : Sources and Documentation. Beiträge des Internationalen Colloquiums, Eutin (27.-30. Juni 1996). Historia-Einzelschriften, 122
Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998, p. 11-43.
 
"Vardanes contra Gotarzes II. - einige Überlegungen zur arsakidischen Politik ca. 40 - 51 n. Chr." (1997)
Folia Orientalia, 1997, vol. 33, p. 81-100.
 
"Parthian King's Tiara - Numismatic Evidence and Some Aspects of Arsacid Political Idiology" (1997)
In: Notae Numismaticae - Zapiski Numizmatyczne
Krakow: 1997, vol. 2, p. 27-61.
Abstract: Tiary wladcow partyjskich - swiadeclwa nnmi/matyc/ne i niektore aspekty polityc/.nrj ideologii Arsakidrfw.

Generally a good paper but unfortunately most of the conclusions are based on out-dated evidence. For instance, when reference is made to various Parthian tiaras, the author uses the information in Sellwood's catalogue, not knowing that since 1980 we have had a number of unrecorded types depicting new variants of kings' tiaras.
 
"Parthian Military Strategy at War against Rome" (1998)
In: Vilinbachov, G. V. & Masson, V. M. (eds.), Voennaja arkheologiia. Oruzhie i voennoe delo v istoricheskoi i sotsialnoi perspektive, Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi Konferentsii 2-5 sentiabria 1998 g. (Military Archaeology. Weaponry and Warfare in the Historical and Social Perspective, 2-5 Sep 1998)
St. Petersburg: 1998, p. 138-141.
 
Parthia et ulteriores gentes : die politischen Beziehungen zwischen dem arsakidischen Iran und den Nomaden der eurasischen Steppen (1998)
Munich: tuduv-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1998, 337 p.
Abstract: See reviews: C. Lippolis, Parthica 3 (2001), page 247; I.V. Piankov, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 2002, no. 2. 219-228 (in Russian); J.D. Lerner, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan, 34, 2002, 465-469 (in English); M. Schuol, Klio 84, 2002, 580-581 (in German); Everett L. Wheeler, Orbis Terrarum 6, 2000, 272-274 (in English).

Excerpt from Wheeler's review: "Olbrycht’s study restores a much-needed balance to perceptions of Parthia by demonstrating that the Parthian Kernland, Hyrcania and southern Parthyaia, retained its significance throughout the history of the Parthian Empire, and that Parthian concern for its northern and northeastern frontiers equalled, if it did not exceed, its interest in Mesopotamia, Armenia, and the West. As the Parthians’ economic and power base never lay exclusively in Mesopotamia, Parthian strategy in sacrificing Mesopotamia and Ctesiphon (even if reluctantly) to Roman intrusions and its ability to rebound from western inroads becomes more explicable. Olbrycht has thoroughly exploited the archaeological evidence - much of it recent - for Turkestan, Margiana, and Central Asia. Now much of this literature from areas of the former Soviet Union, hitherto linguistically and/or physically inaccessible to Western scholars, can be digested and appreciated. Numismatic evidence is also profitably used along with Chinese sources, as Olbrycht fearlessly assembles his version of the various Völkerwanderungen in Central Asia, the Yuech-chih's conquest of Bactria, the ephemeral Indo-Parthian kingdom, the rise of the Kushan, and emergence of the Alans. Though definitive solutions to all these and other problems remain elusive in the present state of the evidence, Olbrycht must be congratulated for his efforts and. above all, for his analysis of how these events affected Parthia economically and politically (…). A brief review can hardly do justice to Olbrycht’s treatment of these complex issues" (Orbis Terrarum 6/2000, 273).
 
"Das Arsakidenreich zwischen der mediterranen Welt und Innerasien" (1998)
In: Dabrowa, Edward (ed.), Ancient Iran and the mediterranean world. Proceedings of an international conference in honour of Professor Józef Wolski held at the Jagiellonian university, Cracow, in September 1996 (Electrum. Studies in Ancient History. 2.)
1998, p. 123-159.
 
"Bemerkungen zur parthischen Münzprägung unter Vologases I. und Pakoros II" (1999)
In: Notae Numismaticae - Zapiski Numizmatyczne
Krakow: 1999, no. 3/4, p. 69-93.
Abstract: Die vorliegende Untersuchung setzt es sich zum Ziel, in einer Aufarbeitung des zur Verfügung stehenden Quellenmaterials die unterschiedlichen Interpretationsansätze, mit denen die parthischen Prägungen der 70er Jahre des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. analysiert werden, einer kritischen Überprüfung zu unterziehen. Behandelt wird die parthische Prägetätigkeit im Zeitalter des Vologases I. (50-80 n. Chr.) und Pakoros II. (78-ca. 110 n. Chr.). [Author]
 
"The Significance of the Arsacid Kingdom in the History of Central Asia" (1999)
In: Masson, V. M. (ed.), Izuchenie kulturnogo naslediia Vostoka: Kulturnye traditsii i preemstvennost v razvitii drevnikh kultur i tsivilizatsii. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii v Sankt-Peterburge (23-25 nojabria 1999)
Ashgabad-St. Petersburg: 1999, p. 35-38.
 
"The Seleucids and the culture of their epoch" [in Polish] (1999)
In: Wolski, Józef, Dzieje u upadek imperium Seleucydów
Krakow: Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1999, p. 135-208.
Abstract: Presented are numerous Parthian art objects, including the "Prince of Shami" and artifacts from Nisa.
 
"Remarks on the Presence of Iranian Peoples in Europe and Their Asiatic Relations" (2000)
In: Pstrusińska, J. & Fear, A. T. (eds.), Collectanea Celto-Asiatica Cracoviensia,
Kraków: 2000, p. 101-140.
 
"Der Fernhandel in Ostsarmatien und in den benachbarten Gebieten (zweite Hälfte des 2. - 1. Jh. v. Chr.)" (2001)
In: Laverna 12, 2001,
Laverna, 2001, vol. 12, p. 86-122.
Abstract: Numismatic and literary evidence is used to show the trade relations between the Arsacid empire, Transcaucasian countries and the peoples of the eastern and central Europe. [Author]
 
"Die Aorser, die Oberen Aorser und die Siraker bei Strabon. Zur Geschichte und Eigenart der Völker im nordpontischen und nordkaukasischen Raum im 2.-1. Jh. v. Chr." (2001)
Klio, 2001, no. 83, p. 425-450.
Abstract: The paper discusses the history of the nomadic peoples living in the steppes north of the Caucasus and in the North Pontic area. Treated are also relations between the steppe tribes and Parthia. [Author]
 
"The Origins of the Arsacid Parthian Cavalry: Some Remarks" (2001)
In: Masson, V. M. (ed.), The Role of Ahalteke Horse in the Formation of World Horse-Breeding: Materials for the International Conference, Ashgabad 2001
Ashgabad: 2001, p. 108-111.
 
"Griechen und Perser in achaimenidischer Zeit. Überlegungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Orient und Okzident" (2003)
In: Pstrusińska, J. & Stalmaszczyk, P. (eds.), Collectanea Eurasiatica Cracoviensia. Understanding Eurasia (in German)
Kraków: 2003, p. 145-164.
 
"Parthia and Nomads of Central Asia. Elements of Steppe Origin in the Social and Military Developments of Arsacid Iran" (2003)
In: Schneider, Irene (ed.), Series: Mitteilungen des SFB "Differenz und Integration" 5: Militär und Staatlichkeit (Orientwissenschaftliche Hefte 12/2003)
Halle/Saale: 2003, p. 69-109.
Abstract: The most obvious approach to ascertain the importance of the nomadic traditions in Parthian Iran lies in the study of the social structure and military developments in the Arsacid empire, with particular reference to its origins. To understand Arsacid history properly it must be kept in mind that the Parthian kingdom emerged as the result of a nomadic invasion in northeastern Iran. Although tightly bound to their steppe heritage, the Arsacids showed a remarkable ability to adopt promptly and efficiently a number of the hallmarks associated with the sedentary peoples, whom they had subjugated, including the establishment of new cities, the creation of strongholds, and the introduction of a coinage system. On the whole, the first Arsacids – Arsaces I and Arsaces II – managed to create a new stable state.

The character of socio-economic and cultural relations within the Arsacid kingdom is an extremely complex one. The Arsacid Parthians maintained different relations with the nomads of Middle Asia and the Caspian-Pontic steppes, including ties in terms of political marriagies and alliances, moreover, even some Parthian kings highligted their nomadic background (e.g. Sinatruces and Artabanus II). All those links strengthened the nomadic legacy in Parthia.

After the conquest of Parthyaia and Hyrcania, Arsaces I found himself in the predicament of ruling two worlds: the nomadic Aparni and the settled population of northeastern Iran. Apparently, the principal under which the social structure of the Arsacid heartland and of Arsacid Parthia operated was the nomadic legacy of the Aparni. The rigid division of Parthian society into "freemen" and the lower ranks of the dependants as well as the dichotomies between an "equestrian estate" and the rest of society (peasants and townsmen) originated in the period when the Arsacid kingdom was established and when the invading nomads subjugated the indigenous population of northeastern Iran. Essentially, the aristocracy of the victorious Aparni became the ruling elite in Parthia, but it assimilated -- mainly in the lower ranks -- also parts of the traditional sedentary Iranian nobility of Parthyaia (and the adjacent lands including Hyrcania). Parthian social structure was closely connected with the state’s military organization, which for the most part was founded on nomadic practices inherited from the Aparni.

The ethos of the Arsacid Parthians -- understood as the fundamental character underlying the Parthian guiding assumptions, customs, manners, mentality and Arsacid social as well as military institutions -- was quite different from that of the Iranians in the Achaemenid period. This ethos was esentially of nomadic descendance. Particulary striking in the picture of Parthian society is a close connection between higher status and horse-riding. Horse-riding was treated by the Parthians as a hallmark of upper social ranks, being essentially reserved only for the free-born men. Needless to say the military position of Parthian cavalry reflected this as well. All this is again nomadic heritage, and not Iranian sedentary tradition. Also the Parthian dress was of steppe origin. As rightly recognized by H. von Gall, the Parthian dress is to be treated as "ein Prärogativ, eine Art Amtstracht", especially in the conquered territories of western Iran and Mesopotamia. As far as can be judged at the present state of research, the iconographic materials provided by the statues from Ustyurt and Mangyshlak areas (western Kazakhstan) supply new evidence pointing towards close cultural relations between the Arsacid Parthians and the nomads of Middle Asia and set the research of many aspects of the nomadic-Parthian affinities upon a new course.

Generally speaking, the main fighting arms of the Parthians, the cataphracts and the horse-archers, were principally of steppe origin. The early Arsacid cavalry forces with their special equipment and highly sophisticated tactics were created in the milieu embracing the nomadic Dahae and Massagetae in Middle Asia. A certain role in this process was played also by the sedentary Parthyaians/Parthians in northeastern Iran. In developing their warfare, the nomads of the pre-Arsacid period, and then the Arsacid Parthians had to take into account Hellenistic innovations brought into Iran and Middle Asia by Alexander the Great and his successors.

The culture of the Parthians, their political, economic and military institutions underwent different influences, including Hellenistic and Old Iranian traditions. At the same time, the essential components of Parthian society, way of life and warfare remained rather conservative and were based on steppe nomadic factors, and as such they exhibit no principal ties with the Achaemenid period or with other traditions of the sedentary world in Western Asia. [Author]
 
"The Ochos river in the classical sources: a study in the historical geography of northeastern Iran and Middle Asia" (2003)
In: Mkrtyčev, T. K. (ed.), Tsentralnaia Aziia. Istochniki, istoriia, kultura
Moskow: 2003, p. 114-117.
 
"The Seleukids and the Arsakids: propaganda aspects in the rivalry for supremacy in the 'Hellenistic Near East'" [in Polish, German summary] (2004)
In: Morawiecki, L. & Berdowski, P. (eds.), Ideology and Propaganda in Antiquity. Materials of a Conference organized by the Ancient History Committee of the Polish Historical Association, Rzeszów, September 12-14, 2000
Rzeszow: Biblioteka Frazy, 2004, p. 45-68.
 
Aleksander Wielki i świat irański [Alexander the Great and the Iranian world, in Polish] (2004)
Rzeszow: University of Rzeszow Publishing House, 2004, 412 p.
Abstract: This work is a contribution to the much-needed clarification of the history of Hellenistic Iran. Contrary to the majority of studies of the topic, the author focuses on the role of the Iranians and of the Iranian traditions in the period of Alexander’s rule in Western and Middle Asia. The book presents a broad array of source materials and examines the political issues, fundamental changes in Alexander’s warfare and army in the Iranian area (some developments in warfare heralded Parthian military practices), Alexander’s colonization, coinage (including the famous decadrachms), and the iconography of several art objects (including the Alexander sarcophagus and the Alexander mosaic). The study is of crucial importance for a better understanding of the pre-Arsacid period in Iran. [Author]

See review by Katarzyna Balbuza in sehepunkte 5 (2005), Nr. 7/8 [15.07.2005]
 
"Foundations of Alexander the Great in Iran and Middle Asia: origins and status of the colonists" [in Polish, German summary] (2004)
In: Mrozewicz, L. & Balbuza, K. (eds.), The Ancient City. Materials of an all-Polish Scholarly Conference, Poznan, September 19-21, 2002 (= Xenia Posnaniensia 3)
Poznan: VIS, 2004, p. 121-138.
 
Olshausen, E.
"Mithradates VI and Rom" (1972)
Aufstieg und Nidergang der römischen Welt, 1972, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 806-815.
 
Olshausen, J.
"Parthava und Pahlav, Mâda und Mâh" (1877)
In: Monatsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin
1877, p. 727-777.
 
Olson, Mark J.
"Parthians [Gk Parthoi]" (1992)
In: The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume 5: O-Sh
New York: Doubleday, 1992, 170 p.
 
Olson, Richard A.
Studies in the coinage of the Arsacid rulers of Parthia from Mithradates I to Artavasdes (1968)
University of Minnesota, 1989, vi+185 p.
Abstract: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Minnesota, 1968. Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1989. Olson catalogs the Maurice D. Quam collection of 2 tetradrachms, 206 drachms and 20 royal bronzes, cross-referencing them to BMC Parthia, SNG Copenhagen, and Pope's Survey of Persian Art (which includes coins from E.T. Newell's collection).
 
"Greek letterforms on the Parthian Drachms" (1973)
Visible Language, 1973, vol. VII (Winter), no. 1, p. 19-40.
Abstract: Olson cataloged the Maurice D. Quam collection as part of his doctoral dissertation. Part of the collection appears in this article.

One of the most unusual coinages in antiquity was the coinage of the Parthian empire, largest of the later Hellenistic empires. The Parthians were a non-Greek people who used Greek as their first official language of state and as the predominant language on their coins. Their most common denomination, the silver drachm, bore Greek legends for almost half a millennium, and the letterforms underwent a significant transformation in the process. Since the coinage constitutes the largest body of primary source material extant concerning ancient Parthia, that transformation is of significant interest to the classification historian. [Publisher]
 
"The Maurice Quam Collection of Parthian Coins" (1973-1974)
Journal of Numismatic Fine Arts, 1974, vol. 2, no. 4 (Wnt 73-Spring 74), p. 69-77.
Abstract: The general introduction to a forthcoming catalogue sale is presented.
 
"Parthia, China and Rome: Perspectives along the Great Silk Route" (1979)
In: Powell, M. A. & Sack, R. H. (eds.), Studies in Honor of T. B. Jones, Kevelaer-Neukirchen/VLUYN
1979, p. 329-339.
 
"Maurice Quam Collection of Parthian Coins" (1982-1984)
In: in four parts: 1982, Spring (vol. 4.1); 1982, Fall (vol. 4.2); 1983, Fall (vol. 4.3); 1984, Winter (vol. 4.4)
Collector's Journal of Ancient Art, 1982, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 2-7.
Abstract: Parts 1-3 cover the Quam collection extensively, with 230 illustrations.
Part 1 of the Maurice Quam collection is in vol. 4, no.1 (Spring 1982), pp. 2-7, illustrating and discussing 58 coins (pre-Mithradatic period to Phraates III (211 BC-57 BC). Another 19 Parthian coins are offered for sale.
Part 2 is in vol. 4, no. 2 (Fall 1982), pp. 10-15 illustrates and discusses 68 pieces, Mithradates III to Vologases II (58 BC- 90 AD).
Part 3 is in vol. 4, no. 3 (Fall 1983), pp. 19-24 illustrates and discusses 101 pieces, Vologases III - Artabanus IV (111- 227 AD).
Part 4 in vol. 4, no. 4 (Winter 1984), pp. 27-32, is Olson's bibliography and a chart of the evolution of letter forms, with no coins illustrated.
 
Oltramare, A
"Auguste et les Parthes" (1938)
Revue des études latines, 1938, vol. 16, p. 121-138.
 
O'Neill, J. P.
Ancient Art from the Shumei Family Collection (1996)
New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996, xii+210 p.
Abstract: Exhibition catalog for Metropolitan Museum of Art, June 20-Sept. 1, 1996, and at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Nov. 17, 1996-Feb. 9, 1997. Includes Parthian silver rhyton.
 
Oppermann, M.
"Beiträge zur parthischen Sakral- und Festungsarchitektur am Beispiel der Grabungsergebnisse in Nisa" (1968)
In: Wiss. Z. Univ. Halle, XVII: 6
1968, p. 43-115.
 
Orlandini, Giuseppe Maria
Arsaces : an opera as it is perform'd at the King's Theatre in the Hay-Market for the Academy of Musick (1721)
London: Tho. Wood, 1721
Abstract: Libretto by Paolo Rolli -- dedication signed by him. English and Italian words on opposite pages.
 
Orlov, M. A.
Rekonstruktsiya zala Voinov dvortsa Toprak-Kala (1949)
In: TIUTAKE (Trudy IUzhno-Turkmenistanskoi arkheologicheskoi kmpleksnoi ekspeditsii) [Southern Turkmenistan Archeological Complex Expedition], vol. 1 (1949)
1950
Abstract: For Toprak Kale, see pp. 47 ff.
 
Osten, H. H. von der
"Seven Parthian Statuettes" (1926)
Art Bulletin, 1926, vol. 8, p. 169-174.
 
Otto, W.
"Himeros (1)" (1913)
In: RE 8
1913, p. 1635-1638.
 
"Himeros (5)" (1913)
In: RE 8
1913, p. 1638-1640.
 
Overbeck, Bernhard
"Numismatische Zeugnisse zu den spätrömischen Gardehelmen" (1974)
In: Kossack, G. & Ulbert, G. (eds.), Münchner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Supplement 1 (Studien zur Vor- und frühgeschichtlechen Archäologie. Festschrift für Joachim Werner zum 65. Geburtstag.
München: Beck, 1974, p. 217-225.
Abstract: The origin and development of the guard's helmets on the Pfersee/Berkasovo type is studied with the help of numismatic material from Mithradates II of Parthian to Justinian I. It is concluded that the late Roman guards' helmets are an indirect borrowing from the Persian helmet. (Bernhard Schulte)
 
Pagliaro, A.
"II testo pahlavico Ayatkar-i Zareran" (1925)
In: Rendiconti della Reale Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, serie VI, I
1925, p. 550-604.
 
Pakhomov, E. A.
Monetnye klady Azerbaidzhana i drugikh respublik, kraev i oblastei Kavkaza [Coin hoards of Azerbaidzhan and other administrative areas in the Caucasus] (1938)
In: Trudy Instituta istorii, iazyka i literatury / Akademiia nauk SSSR. Azerbaidzhanskii filial, vol II/41
Baku: Izd-vo AN Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR, 1938
Abstract: Vol. 2 issued as v. 2/41 of Trudy Instituta istorii, iazyka i literatury / Akademiia nauk SSSR. Azerbaidzhanskii filial.
No illustrations.
 
Material'naia kul'tura Azerbaidzhana 2 (1951)
Baku: 1951, p. 145-146.
Abstract: Contains information on the Mingechaur hoard (IGCH 1742) which composed five silver drachms of Phraates III, Mithradates III and Orodes II.
 
"Chekanka v Albanii podrazhanii monetam makedonskim ili selevkidskim v I v. do n.e." [Minting imitations of Macedonian and Seleucid coins in Albania in the 1st century B.C.] (1962)
Trudy Muzeia Istorii Azerbaidzhana, 1962, vol. 5, p. 74-76.
Abstract: Summary in Azebaidzhan. Late coins of Phraates III were found in a hoard from the village of Khinisly.
 
Antichnye monety v Albanii (v predelakh Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR) [Ancient coins in Albania, in the Azerbaidzhan SSR] (1962)
Voprosy istorii Kavkazkoi Albanii, 1962, p. 106-113.
Abstract: Summary in Azebaidzhan. Ancient coin finds, the earliest 3rd century B.C. Seleucid, are reviewed. Hoards found in the village of Khinisly are listed (IGCH 1745), including Parthian coins of Mithradates I, Mithradates II, "Gotarzes I", Sinatruces, and Phraates III.
 
Pakzadian, Hassan
sekkeh-haye ilemaie (Elymais Coins) [in Persian and English] (2007)
2007, xlvii (English) +161 (Persian) p.
Abstract: ISBN # 978-964-04-111-9-3
A bilingual book, most of which is in Farsi, but 29 pages are in English and the coins, of which there are almost 600 illustrated, are labeled by ruler in English. There are 16 page plates of color photos and 772 somewhat enlarged B&W photos, plus other figures.

This book is based on a mixture of old and new books and photos assembled without critical commentary by the author who borrows without permission from original authors and publishers including recently published works in the USA. For example there is a reference to Pieter Anne van't Haaff's Catalogue of Elymaean Coinage published by CNG (2007).
 
Pan, Ku (Han shu); Hill, John E. (tr.)
"The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu : The Xiyu chuan ("Chapter on the Western Regions")
from Hou Hanshu 88" (445 A.D.)
2003, 2 ed.
Abstract: See especially Section 10 - The Kingdom of Anxi (Parthia). The Hou Han Shu, the official history of the Latter or Eastern Han Dynasty, 25-220 CE, was compiled in the fifth century by Fan Ye but is based on earlier records. In particular, note the changes made after the original draft was circulated in 2000 regarding the identification of a number of towns in Parthian territory which has led to a completely revised itinerary for the travels of the Chinese envoy Gan Ying in 97 CE. Also, identifications age given for all five Yuezhi xihou or 'princedoms' just prior to their unification into a Kushan state under Kujula Kadphises, with some new proposals regarding the names and titles of the early Kushans and their dates, and a proposal that these Kushans under Kujula may have invaded eastern Parthia in 55 CE.
 
Pan, Ku (Han shu); Hulsewâe, A. F. P. (tr.)
China in central Asia : the early stage, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23 : an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the history of the former Han dynasty / by A. F. P. Hulsewé ; with an introd. by M. A. N. Loewe (1979)
In: Sinica Leidensia, vol. 14
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1979, viii+273 p.
Abstract: The classical work on the subject, and one of the most respected. A bit heavy going, but invaluable for the serious student.
 
Panaino, Antonio
"The baghân>/i> of the Fratarakas: gods or ‘divine’ kings?" (2003)
In: Cereti, Carlo G.; Maggi, Mauro. & Provasi, Elio A. (eds.), Religious Themes and Texts of pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia. Studies in honour of Professor Gherardo Gnoli on the occasion of his 65th birthday on 6th December 2002 (Beiträge zur Iranistik, 24).
Reichert, 2003, p. 265-288.
Abstract: Contribution importante au problème longuement débattu (l’article fournit une bibliographie exhaustive) de la signification à donner à la formule prtrk’ ZY ’LHY’ (Frataraka ī baghân) qui suit le nom du souverain sur les monnaies des quatre premiers Frataraka autonomes du Fārs, pour lesquels l’auteur adopte la chronologie de Callieri : c. 200-180 av. n.è. Plusieurs des solutions proposées précédemment pour l’identité de ces baghân sont réfutées avec de très forts arguments : ce ne sont ni les souverains achéménides divinisés après leur mort (usage dont il n’existe aucune confirmation), ni les Séleucides (pourquoi les Fratarakas si soucieux d’affirmer leur indépendance auraient-ils immédiatement pris acte de l’épithète divine theos qui venait d’être conférée à Antiochos III ?), ni les Arsacides (qui ne se sont intitulés theopatôr puis theos qu’en grec, et à une époque plus tardive). La solution finalement retenue est de voir dans les baghân les dieux protecteurs de la dynastie achéménide, dieux au nom desquels les Frataraka qui ne revendiquaient pas une ascendance royale étaient censés exercer leur pouvoir.

Cette solution est séduisante et elle s’accorderait bien avec les symboles religieux figurés au revers des monnaies. On peut toutefois se demander si l’option consistant à voir dans ’LHY’ une autodésignation des souverains (voir M.-L. Chaumont, RHR 153, 1958, p. 170) n’a pas été enterrée un peu vite. Rien ne s’opposerait en effet à ce qu’ici l’eḍāfe introduise non pas une relation de dépendance mais une apposition (cf. ’nhyt ZY MROTA « Anāhīd la Dame » à Paikuli et sur des légendes monétaires). On aurait pu éprouver le besoin de gloser le titre Frataraka, appartenant au passé achéménide et peut-être compris désormais comme nom dynastique, par ’LHY’ « seigneur » (forme notant le pluriel de majesté baān, ou déjà identique à l’idéogramme pehlevi ORHYA = bay).

L’article contient par ailleurs des discussions approfondies sur la question de la sémantique de baga- > bay, sur l’expression kē čihr az yazadān, etc. [Frantz Grenet, Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 26, mis en ligne le : 8 décembre 2005. URL http://abstractairanica.revues.org/document3475.html]
 
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