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Ettinghausen, R.
"Parthian and Sasanian Pottery" (1938)
In: Pope, Arthur Upham & Ackerman, Phyllis (eds.), A Survey of Persian art from prehistoric times to the present (1981 Centennial edition), vol. 1
New York: Maxwell Aley Literary Associates, 1981, 3 ed., p. 646-664.
 
Eusebius Pamphili
The ecclesiastical history / Eusebius ; with an English translation by Kirsopp Lake (in 2 vols) (1932)
In: The Loeb classical library - Greek authors ; 153, 265
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1932
Abstract: Author is Eusebius of Caesarea, Bishop of Caesarea, ca. 260-ca. 340
 
Eutropius (4th cent)
Historiæ Romanæ breviarium : cum versione Anglica, in qua verbum de verbo exprimitur; notis quoque & indice: or, Eutropius's Compendious history of Rome / together with an English translation, as literal as possible, notes and an index by John Clarke (4th攄
New York: Evert Duyckinck, 1805, 3 ed.
Abstract: See 8.6 for plague story concerning Roman army in Mesopotamia.
 
Evans, J. Gilbert
"Oriental coins donated by J. Gilbert Evans" (1987)
The Numismatist, 1987, vol. 100 (Dec), p. 2580-83.
Abstract: ANA Museum holdings.
 
Fabrègues, Chantal
"The Indo-Parthian Beginnings of Gandhara Sculpture" (1987)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1987, tome/ser. New, vol. 1
Abstract: Excavations at the Gandharan site of Butkara (Pakistan) have yielded sculpture, dated numismatically around the beginning of the period of Parthian domination in the area, which displays both subject matter and style similar to that of objects found in the Indo-Greek levels at Sirkap (Taxila). For example, the Parthian-style jewelry represented on Butkara sculpture to that worn by bracket figures from Taxila. The costume of the figures on the Butkara sculptures is undeniably Parthian; it is identical to that shown on the Parthian bronze statue from Shami. [C.A. Bromberg]
 
Faizkhah, Said; Azizipoure; Tahereh; Nadooshan, F.; & Niah, Sabir Hassan
"The socio-political condition of Azerbaijan in the Parthian period" (2005)
Journal of the Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society, 2005, tome/ser. 2, vol. 6, no. 3 (Sep), p. 5-11.
Abstract: Illustrates and discusses 21 Parthian coins in the Tabriz museum.
 
Falk, H.
"Names and Weights inscribed on some vessels from the silver hoard" (2001)
Journal des savants, 2001, no. Jul-Dec
Abstract: An annex to François Baratte's article, "Orient et Occident : le témoignage d'une trouvaille d'argenterie d'époque parthe en Asie centrale"
 
Fard, Seyfollah Kambakhsh
Goor Khomre-haye Ashkani [Potteries/Jars from the Parthian Graves] (1998)
Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e Danishgahi, 1998
 
Farkas, Alexander
Die Ikonographie der Partherkönige (1933)
Paris: 1933
 
Die Ikonographie der Partherkönige. Anhang: Unedierte griechischer Münzen (1933)
Aiud-Magyenyed, 1933, 17 p.
 
L'iconographie des rois parthes : supplément monnaies grecques inéditées (1934)
Aiud-Magyenyed, 1934, 13 p.
 
Farr, Edward
Ancient history : containing the history of the Egyptians,Assyrians, Chaldeans, Medes, Lydians, Carthaginians, Persians, Macedonians, the Seleucidae in Syria, and Parthians, from Rollin, and other authentic sources,both ancient and modern (1856)
Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys & Co., 1856
Abstract: Note: "That portion which has been derived from Rollin, is entirely rewritten."--Pref.
See pp. 341-362 for "The History of the Parthians" chapter.
 
Farrokh, Kaveh
Parthian is not Turkish (2003)
2003
 
Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War (2007)
Osprey, 2007
Abstract: The text outlines Persia's contributions to world civilization in areas such as mythology, technology, sciences, literature, militaria, the arts, music, architecture and garments.
 
Fehervari, Geza
Ceramics of the Islamic world in the Tareq Rajab Museum (2000)
New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000
Abstract: The Tareq Rajab Museum is in Kuwait. See chapter one, "The Pre- and Early Islamic Periods (2nd to 8th centuries)".
 
Ferguson, R. James
Rome and Parthia: Power Politics and Diplomacy Across Cultural Frontiers (2005)
In: Research Paper No. 12, December 2005. The Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Bond University, Australia
2005
 
Ferrero, Guglielmo
"Caesar's Last Ambition-The Conquest of Parthia" (1907)
In: Zimmern, Alfred E. (tr.), The greatness and decline of Rome, Vol 2 : Julius Caesar
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1907
Abstract: Translation of Guglielmo Ferrero's Grandezza e decadenza di Roma, publish in Milano, Fratelli Treves, 1902-04.
 
Ferrier, Ronald W. (ed.)
The arts of Persia (1989)
In: Yale Classical Studies
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989, 334 p.
Abstract: MWW: Brief historical surveys for each major historical period of Iran, including Elam (ca. 3000-550 BCE), Achaemenid empire (550-330 BCE), Parthian empire (250 BCE-224 CE), and Sasanian empire (224-651 CE). Superb plates.
 
Fink, R. O.
"Victoria Parthica and Kindred Victoriae" (1942)
In: Harmon, A. M. & Bellinger, Alfred R. (eds.), Yale Classical Studies, vol. 8
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1942, p. 81-102.
 
Fink, R. O., Gilliam, J. F., Henning, W. B. & Welles, C. B.
The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Final Report V. Part I. The Parchments and Papyrii (1959)
In: Yale Classical Studies
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945
 
Finkbeiner, Uwe (ed.)
"Keramik der Seleukidischen und Parthischen Zeit aus den Grabungen in Uruk-Warka" (1992)
Baghdader Mitteilungen, 1992, vol. 23, p. 473-580.
 
Materialien zur Archäologie der Seleukiden- und Partherzeit im südlichen Babylonien und im Golfgebiet : Ergebnisse der Symposien 1987 und 1989 in Blaubeuren (1993)
Tubingen: E. Wasmuth, 1993, xv+294 p.
Abstract: English, French, and German. At head of title: Deutsches Archaologisches Institut. Abteilung Baghdad. Includes bibliographical references.
 
Fiorelli, Giuseppe
Catalogo del Museo Nazionale di Napoli : Medagliere, Vol. I, Monete Greche (1870)
Napoli: Museo nazionale di Napoli, 1870
Abstract: Listings of Parthian coins, without illustrations, museum catalog numbers 9399 through 9414.
 
Firdawsi
Shahnamah (1996)
In: Levy, Reuben (transl.), The epic of the kings : Shah-nama, the national epic of Persia
Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda, 1996, 2 ed., 423 p.
Abstract: An abridged translation by Reuben Levy; with a foreword by Ehsan Yarshater, a preface by Amin Banani, and and a new introduction by Dick Davis

See XXI Rule of the Ashkani [Arsacid or Parthian] Kings, p. 251
 
Fischer, H.
"Überlegungen aus wirtschaftshistorischer Sicht zum Scheitern der Grossoffensive des Römischen Reiches gegen die Parther 113/14 bis 117" (1979)
Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 1979, vol. 2, p. 183-201.
 
Fischer, John E.
Mithradates I and the emergence of the Parthian Empire (1962)
Brown University, 1962, iii+85 p.
Abstract: Typescript. Thesis (A.M.)--Brown University. Bibliography: l. 81-85.
 
Fischer, Thomas
"Methodische Bemerkung zur historischen Auswertung antiker Münzhortfunde an Hand der Silberfunde von Susa: Depotfund und Münzversteck" (1968)
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1968, vol. 18, no. 69 (Feb), p. 9-13.
Abstract: A source for information on the Susa hoard (IGCH 1809).
 
Untersuchungen zum Partherkrieg Antiochos' VII. im Rahmen der Seleukidengeschichte (1970)
Tubingen: 1970, 124 p.
Abstract: Parthian War, 131-129 B.C. Includes bibliographical references.
 
"King Kamniskirès" Basilewz Kamnsc[e]irou (in Greek) (1971)
Chiron, 1971, vol. 1, p. 169-175.
Abstract: Fischer analyse la portée historique des monnaies de Kamniskirès Ier Nicéphore et de Kamniskirès Soter en Elymaïde (milieu du deuxième s. av. J.C.), qui viennent d'être cités à propos des trésors de Susiane. [P. Nastor]
 
Fityan, Ahmad Malik
7 sanawat fi Tall Aswad (1979)
1979, 248 p.
 
Fontana, Maria Vittoria (ed.)
La collezione Tonizza nel Museo della Chiesa Nuova di Assisi. Le monete partiche, sasanidi e islamiche (2001)
In: Studi e Materiali 9
Roma: Istituto italiano di numismatica, 2001
 
Formenton, Fabio
Oriental Rugs and Carpets (translated by Pauline L. Phillips) (1972)
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972
Abstract: Versione inglese de "Il libro del Tappeto" di Fabio Formenton.

Under the heading "The Seleucid and Parthian Dynasties," Formenton writes: "By contrast [to Cyrus], ther is no evidence to validate the use of carpets during the reigns of the other Achaemenian rulers, but there is reliable evidence of the existence of this art during the reigns of the two successive dynasties (Seleucid 312-120 BC and Parthian 170 BC-AD 226)." Unfortunately, he cites none of the evidence.
 
Forrer, L.
The Weber collection - Descriptive catalogue of the collection of Greek coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber (1922)
London: Spink and Son, 1922
Abstract: I. Introduction: [Notes culled from "Autobiographical reminiscences of Sir Hermann Weber ..." London, Priv. print., 1919] Auriol find class. Hispania. Gallia. Britannia. Italy and Sicily.--II. Macedon. Thrace. Thessaly. North western, central and southern Greece.--III. pt. I. Asia: Bosporus. Colchis. Pontus. Paphlagonia. Bythynia. Mysia. Troas. Aeolis. Lesbos. Ionia. Caria. Lydia. pt. II. Asia: Phrygia. Lycia. Pamphylia. Pisidia. Cilicia. Cyprus. Galatia. Cappadocia. Syria. Phoenicia. Palestine. Arabia. Mesopotamia. Persia. Persis. Characene. Bactria. Africa: Egypt. Cyrenaica. Libya. Zeugitana. Islands between Africa and Sicily. Numidia. Mauretania. Incerta
 
Forster, John Reinhold
"Observations on the Parthian Epochas Found on a Coin in the Imperial Cabinet at Vienna Published by Father Erasmus Froelich, in his Elementa Numismatica, Tab. xiv. n. 6. B.D." (1776)
Archaeologia, 1776, vol. 3
 
Forte, Antonino
"Kuwabara's misleading thesis on Bukhara and the family name An" (1996)
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1996, vol. 116 (Oct/Dec), p. 645-652.
Abstract: Kuwabara Jitsuzo's argument regarding the origin of the surname An is examined. In 1924, commenting on a manuscript by Chen Yuan, Jitsuzo argued that bestowal of the surname An on certain foreigners during the medieval period indicated Bukhara as their place of origin. He based this argument on the assumption that the place-name Anxi had come to be used by medieval times in reference to Bukhara. Kuwabara thus challenged Chen Yuan's assertion that the 12th-century figure An Shitong originally came from Parthia. A close analysis of Kuwabara's arguments and the textual evidence at his, and our, disposal, however, reveals the weakness of his position, especially with regard to An Shitong, and his forced (mis)interpretation of some vital points that would have undermined his assertions. [Author]
 
Foss, Clive
"The coinage of Tigranes the Great: problems, suggestions and a new find" (1986)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1986, vol. 146, p. 19-66.
 
Fowler, Richard
"'Most Fortunate Roots': Tradition and Legitimacy in Parthian Royal Ideology" (2005)
In: Hekster, Olivier & Fowler, Richard (eds.), Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome. Oriens et Occidens 11.
Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005, p. 125-156.
Abstract: "Richard Fowler's wide-ranging survey of Parthian royal ideology (125-56) seeks to demonstrate that the limited evidence available for reconstructing this ideology is insufficient to support the proposition that it drew exclusively or even primarily on Achaemenid models. Analysis of monumental art at Behistun and of royal titulature, portraits, and "virtues" consistently reveals the influence of multiple sources in the making of Parthian royal imagery and ideology, from which Fowler concludes persuasively that the Parthians, like all the other regional powers in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia after the collapse of the Hellenistic kingdoms, were actively and creatively experimenting in the representation of royal power." [Carlos F. Noreña, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2006.07.06]
 
Foy Vaillant, Jean
Arsacidarum imperium, sive regum Parthorum historia. Ad fidem numismatum accommodata, Tomus Primus (1728)
Paris: C. Moette, 1728, 892 p.
Abstract: 2 vols. Vol. 2 has title: Achaemenidarum imperium, sive regum Ponti, Bosphori, et Bithyniae historia. Ed. by Charles de Valois. The first volume, "Arsacidarum Imperium" of Jean Vaillant (b. 1632, d. 1706), was published posthumously. "Vaillant discussed the Arsacid coinage with much historical learning, but his erroneous supposition about the era employed led to an entire misconception as to the main outlines of the numismatic arrangement." [Wroth, BMC Parthia, xiii]
"Foy-Vaillant (1632-1706), a numismatist, was sent to the Levant by Colbert sometime after 1670 and collected coins from Greece, Italy, Persia, and Egypt." - Blackmer #121.
 
Franke, P. R. & Hirmer, Max
Die griechische Münze (1964)
München: Hirmer, 1964, 173 p.
Abstract: See plate 212, 781.
 
Franz, Heinrich Gerhard
"Die Kunst von Palmyra zwischen Okzident und Orient. (Zum Problem der parthischen Kunst)" (1987)
In: Palmyra. Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der syrischen Oasenstadt. Einführende Beiträge und Katalog zur Ausstellung. - 1987. - S. 163-178. - (Linzer Archäologische Forschungen. Bd. 16)
 
"Die Architektur in Palmyra zwischen Orient und Okzident. Zum Problem der parthischen Architektur" (1987)
In: Palmyra. Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der syrischen Oasenstadt. Einführende Beiträge und Katalog zur Ausstellung. - 1987. - S. 200-213. - (Linzer Archäologische Forschungen. Bd. 16)
 
Fraser, James Baillie
Historical and descriptive account of Persia from the earliest ages to the present time (1834)
In: Harper's family library no. 70
New York: Harper, 1834, 345 p.
Abstract: Full title: Historical and descriptive account of Persia from the earliest ages to the present time with a detailed view of its resources, government, population, natural history, and the character of its inhabitants, particularly of the wandering tribes : including a description of Afghanistan and Beloochistan
 
Freeman, Charles
"Interlude Two. Celts and Parthians" (1996)
In: Egypt, Greece, and Rome : civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 294-298.
 
Freeman, P. W. M. & Kennedy, David (eds.)
Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East: Proceedings of a Colloquium held at the University of Sheffield in April 1986
In: British Archaeological Reports S297, 2 vols., British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 8
Oxford: 1986
Abstract: Volume 1
Bauzou, T., 'Deux Milliares Inédites de Vaballath en Jordaine du Norde', 1-8
Bivar, A.D.H., 'Bardes Skleros, the Buwayhids, and the Marwanids at Hisn Ziyad in the Light of an unnoticed Arabic Inscription', 9-21
Bowsher, J., 'The Frontier Post of Medain Saleh', 23-29
Braund, D., 'The Caucasian Frontier: Myth, Exploration and the Dynamics of Imperialism', 31-49
Campbell, D., 'What Happened at Hatra? The Problems of the Severan Siege Operations', 51-58
Coulston, J.C., 'Roman, Parthian and Sassanid Tactical Developments', 59-75
Crow, J., 'A Review of the Physical Remains of the Frontier of Cappadocia', 77-91
Dabrowa, E., 'The Frontier of Syria in the First Century AD', 93-108
Devijver, H., 'Equestrian Officers from the East', 109-225
De Vries, B., 'Umm El-Jimal in the First Three Centuries AD', 227-241
Eadie, J., 'The Evolution of the Roman Frontier in Arabia', 243-252
Freeman, P.W., 'The Province of Cilicia and its Origins', 253-275
French, D., 'Cappadocia and the Eastern Limes: Aspects of Romanisation at Amaseia in Cappadocia', 277-285
Gichon, M., 'Aspects of a Roman Army in War according to the Bellum Judaicum of Josephus', 287-310
Gregory, S., 'Road, Wall or Rock: Interpreting an Aerial Photograph from the Jebel Sinjar', 325-328
Harper, R., 'Upper Zohar: A Preliminary Excavation Report', 329-336
Hart, S., 'Nabataeans and Romans in Southern Jordan', 337-342
Hopwood, K., 'Towers, Territory and Terror: How the East was Held', 343-356
Invernizzi, Kifrin and the Euphrates Limes, 357-381
Isaac, B., 'Reflections on the Roman Army in the East', 383-395
Kennedy, D.L., '"European" soldiers and the Severan siege of Hatra', 397-410
Keppie, L.J.F., 'Legions in thr East from Augustus to Trajan', 411-429
Killick, A.C., 'Udruh and the Southern Frontier', 431-446
Lander, J., 'Did Hadrian Abandon Arabia?', 447-453
Lee, A.D.H., 'Embassies as Evidence for the Movement of Military Intelligence Between the Roman and Sasanian Empires', 455-461
Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G., 'Generals, Federates and Buccelarii in Roman Armies around AD 400', 463-474
Lieu, S., 'Captives, Refugees and Exiles: A Study of the Cross-Frontier Movements and Contacts between Rome and Persia from Valerian to Jovian', 474-505
Lieu, S., 'Urbanism in Hellenstic, Parthian and Roman Mesopotamia', 507-508
Lightfoot, C.S., 'Tilli - A Late Roman Equites Fort on the Tigris?', 509-529
MacAdam, H.I., 'Some Notes on the Ummayad Occupation of North-East Jordan', 531-547
Matthews, J.F., 'Ammianus and the Eastern Frontier in the Fourth Century: A Participant's View', 549-564
Mitford, T.B., 'A Late Roman Fortress South of Lake Van', 565-573
Mor, M., 'The Roman Army in Eretz-Israel in the Years AD 70-132', 575-602
>O'Connor, M.P., 'The Etymology of "Saracen" in Aramaic and Pre-Islamic Contexts', 603-632
Parker, S.T., 'Retrospective on the Arabian Frontier after a Decade of Research', 633-660
Riley, D.N., 'Archaeological Air Photography and the Eastern Limes', 661-676
Rubin, Z., 'Diplomacy and War in the Relations between Byzantium and the Sassanids in the Fifth Century AD', 677-695
Villeneuve, F., 'Ad-Diyatheth: Village et Castellum Romains et Byzantins à l'Est du Jebel Druze (Syrie)', 697-715
Whitby, M., 'Procopius and the Development of Roman Defences in Upper Mesopotamia', 717-735
Whitby, M., 'Procopius' Descriptions of Dara (Buildings 2.1-3)', 737-783
Graf, D.N., 'The Nabataeans and the Decapolis', 785-796
Index, 797
 
Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P.
"Some Recent archaeological Works on the Tanganyika Coast" (1958)
Man, 1958, vol. 58, no. July, p. 106-112.
Abstract: Mentions three Parthian coins found in the Beit al-Amani Museum, Zanzibar. Not properly accessioned, the coins were in an envelope marked "Ctesiphon" containing five coins: Parthian first century, second century and one uncertain; two Sasanian, one of Ardashir I and one uncertain.
 
"The Times of Ignorance : a Review of Pre-Islamic and Early Isalmic Settlements on the East African Coast" (1988)
In: Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P., The Swahili coast, 2nd to 19th centuries : Islam, Christianity and commerce in Eastern Africa; Variorum collected studies series ; CS275
London: Variourum, 1988, p. 4-17.
Abstract: Mentions some Parthian and Sasanian coins recovered in parts of the Eastern African coast, p. 5.
 
Frendo, David
"Cassius Dio and Herodian on the First Sasanian Offensive against the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire (229–232)" (2006)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 2006, tome/ser. New, vol. 16, p. 25-36.
 
"Roman Expansion and the Graeco-Iranian World: Carrhae, Its Explanation and Aftermath in Plutarch" (2007)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 2007, tome/ser. New, vol. 17
 
Frézouls, E.
"Les relations romano-parthes avant l'époque flavienne" (1995)
In: Frézouls, E. & Jacquemin, A. (ed.), Les relations internationales. Actes du colloque de Strasbourg, vol. 13, 15-17 juin 1993
Paris: de Boccard, 1995, p. 479-498.
Abstract: Université des sciences humaines de Strasbourg. Travaux du Centre de recherches sur le Proche-Orient et la Grèce antiques. 13.
 
Bibliography - Page 19

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