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Bibliography Page 48

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Picozzi, Vittorio
"Le monete di Vaballato" (1961)
Numismatica, 1961, tome/ser. N.S., vol. 2, p. 123-128.
 
Pieper, Wilfried
"Greek influenced portrait coins in Central Asia and India" (1996)
The Celator, 1996, vol. 10, no. 5, p. 30-35.
 
Pigulevskaia, Nina Viktorovna
Les villes de l'État iranien aux époques parthe et sassanide; contribution à l'histoire sociale de la Basse Antiquité (1963)
In: Documents et recherches sur l'économie des pays byzantins, islamiques et slaves et leurs relations commerciales au Moyen Age, 6
Paris: Mouton & Co., 1963, viii+266 p.
Abstract: Préf. de Claude Cahen
 
Piliavskii, V. I.
"Arkhitektura drevnego Merva" [The architecture of ancient Merv] (1950)
In: Nauchnie trudy Leningradskogo inzhenero-stroitel'nogo instituta, no. 10
Moscow: 1950
 
Pilipko, V. N.
"Klad parfyanskih monet iz Garri-Kyariza (Parfiena)" [A hoard of Parthian coins from Garry-Kyariz (Parthia)] (1976)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1976, vol. 136, no. 2, p. 114-121.
Abstract: Also as VDI, vol 136 (Feb 1983). Finds of 1950-1991 at Giaour-kala in southern Turkmenistan.
 
"Parfyanskie bronzovie monety so zmakom 'P' pod lukom" [Parthian bronze coins bearing the sign 'P' under the bow] (1980)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1980, no. 4, p. 105-124.
 
"K voprosu o chekanke Mitridatokerta" [On the question of the coinage of Mithradatkirt] (1987)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1987, no. 1, p. 120-124.
Abstract: Two coins were discovered in the Kampir-tepe citadel's upper layer on the floor of one of the rooms: a chalkous of Kanishka and a Parthian coin depicting a diademed king that is stamped with a countermark bearing the head of a ruler. This coin is similar to Parthian coins of the first century.
 
"The Horsemen of Nisa" (1988)
Science in the USSR, 1988, vol. 1988.1, p. 50-55.
 
"K voprosu o lokalizatsii Parfavnisy" [The problem of establishing the location of Parthaunisa] (1989)
In: Izvestiya Akad. Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Seriia obshchestvennykh nauk 1982.2
1982, p. 17-25.
 
"Golova v shleme iz Staroæi Nisy" (1989)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1989, vol. 190, no. 3, p. 167-177.
Abstract: Helmeted head from Staraya Nisa and analogies to Greek and Arsacids coins.
 
Pozdneparfianskie pamiatniki Akhala / V.N. Pilipko ; pod redaktsiei G.A. Koshelenko (1990)
Ashkhabad: Ylym, 1990
Abstract: At head of title: Akademiia nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. In-t istorii im. Sh. Batyrova. Includes bibliographical references.
 
"Una testa con elmo da Nisa Vecchia" (1991)
Mesopotamia, 1991, vol. 25 or 26?, p. 155-164.
 
"Excavations of Staraia Nisa" (1994)
In: The Archaelogy and Art of Central Asia: Studies from the Former Soviet Union
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1996, tome/ser. New, vol. 8, p. 101-116.
Abstract: Gives the history of excavations at Nisa, and then describes the latest efforts under Philipko, which began in 1979. The article concludes that the purpose of Nisa complex as a whole is very complicated and far from being resolved definitely. It has neither been established that the fortress at Nisa was a royal residence nor a mausoleum. Pilipko currently believes, in the absence of other proof, that Staraia (Old) Nisa can best be described as a Parthian dynastic or general religious center.
 
"Clay Sculptures from Nisa" (1995)
In: Invernizzi, Antonio, In the Land of the Gryphons: Papers on Central Asian Archaeology in Antiquity; Monografie di Mesopotamia vol 5
Florence: Casa editrice italiana, 1995, p. 13-21.
Abstract: The author presents details of the fragments found in the main buildings at Nisa. See review, C. A. Bromberg, Bulletin of the Asia Institute 9, 1995.
 
Staraia Nisa : zdanie s kvadratnym zalom (1996)
In: Series: Pamiatniki parfianskoi kultury
Moscow: Vostochnaia lit-ra, 1996, 160+plates p.
Abstract: See review: C. Lippolis, Parthica, 3, 2001, pp. 221-234.
 
"On the Wall-Paintings from the Tower-Building of Old Nisa" (2000)
Parthica, 2000, vol. 2, p. 69-86.
 
Staraia Nisa : osnovnye itogi arkheologicheskogo izucheniia v sovetskii period (2001)
In: Series: Pamiatniki parfianskoi kultury
Moscow: Nauka, 2001, 430 p.
Abstract: At head of title: Rossiiskaia akademiia nauk. Institut arkheologii. Summary in English. See review: C. Lippolis, Parthica, 5, 2003, p. 3-13.

There is an important bibliography of the publcations on the excavations Old Nisa (before the italian mission).
 
"Nisa-Mihrdarkirt : un site exceptionnel de la culture parthe" (2006)
In: Turkménistan, un berceau culturel en Asie centrale
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 2006, no. 317 (Oct), p. 52-57.
Abstract: "Nisa des Parthes" compte parmi les sites historiques les plus extraordinaires. Le récit de son histoire peut débuter de la même manière que la Bible : "Au début était le verbe". Il y a environ 2000 ans, Isidore, un savant grec originaire de la ville de Charax située sur le cours inférieur de l'Euphrate, a réalisé une brève description des routes commerciales et guerrières les plus importantes sur le territoire de l'empire parthe. Outre cette cartographie, il a également signalé plusieurs établissements et sites notables sur cet itinéraire. Concernant la ville de Nisa-Nisaya, qui est située aux confins du territoire parthe, il écrit "ici, se trouvent les tombeaux des rois parthes". il s'agit pratiquement du seul commentaire sur cette ville qui se soit conservé. Mais les quelques annotations existantes on été suffisantes pour susciter le vit intérêt de plusieurs générations d'orientalistes et pour les inciter à retrouver cette ville et ces tombeaux. [Author]
 
"The Central Ensemble of the fortress Mihrdatkirt. Layout and chronology" (2008)
Parthica, 2008, vol. 10, p. 33-51.
 
Pilipko, V. N. & Koshelenko, Gennadij A.
"Severnaia Parfiia" (1985)
In: Koshelenko, Gennadij A. (ed.), Drevneishie godsudarstva Kavkaza i Srednei Azii. Arkheologia S.S.S.R.
Moscow: 1985, p. 209-225.
 
Pinches, Theophilus G.
"A Babylonian tablet dated in the reign of Aspasine" (1890)
Babylonian and oriental record, 1890, vol. 4, p. 131-135.
 
Plant, Richard J.
"The North Semitic alphabets and 'Greek' coins" (1974)
London: Seaby's coin and medal bulletin, 1974, no. 674 (Oct), p. 311-313.
Abstract: Continued in SCMB, No. 675 (Nov 1974), pp. 343-347. An introduction to the North Semitic ancient alphabets on coins gives examples of names written on Phoenician coins of Sicily, Aramaic coins of the satraps of Cilicia, coins of Phoenicia itself, and those of the Jews, and ends with a look at the later Aramaic of the Parthians. Coins referred to in the text are illustrated with line drawings.
 
Greek coin types and their identification (1979)
London: Seaby's Numismatic Publications, 1979, 343 p.
Abstract: It is one of the best tools for a quick identification Greek coins.
 
Greek, Semitic, Asiatic coins and how to read them (1979)
Amherst, N. Y.: Scorpion Publishers, 1979, x+257 p.
Abstract: This book helps you identify by reading and dating coins in almost every non-Latin script from the birth of coinage. This title is nearly impossible to find.
 
Arabic coins and how to read them (1980)
London: Seaby's Numismatic Publications, 1980, 2 ed., 150 p.
Abstract: In addition to Arabic, discusses and analyzes the Pahlavi legends and dates on Sasanian coins.
 
Plantzos, Dimitris
Hellenistic Engraved Gems (1999)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999
Abstract: Includes three engraved gems of Mithradates I and Mithradates II.
 
Pliny the Elder (C. Plinius Secundus)
Natural history
In: Internet web site
Abstract: The Latin text as established by Karl Mayhoff in 1897-1908; this version is cross-linked to other useful sites and includes Pliny's preface. There is an excellent tabulation of Pliny's references to Parthia (in English) which has links to the on-line Latin text.
 
Natural history, with an English translation by H. Rackham (1979)
In: Rackham, Harris (tr.), The Loeb classical library : Latin authors, 330, 352-53, 370-71, 392-94, 418-19
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979
Abstract: Latin and English on opposite pages. Vols. 6-8 translated by W. H. S. Jones; v.10 Translated by D.E. Eicholz.
 
Plutarch
Parallel Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans (1864)
In: Dryden, John et al. (tr.); Clough, Arthur Hugh (ed.), Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, as translated by John Dryden and others (1683-86), revised and edited by Arthur Hugh Clough
1864
Abstract: "The information provided by Plutarch in his Lives, especially those of Crassus and Antony, is based on first-rate sources. With allowances for such patriotic biases as the attempts of the military to find an excuse for the defeat of Crassus, this biographer provides us with some of our most extensive connected narratives in Parthian history." [Debevoise (1938), p. xviii]
 
Plutarch's Lives / with an English translation by Bernadotte Perrin (1993)
In: Perrin, Bernadotte (tr.), Loeb classical library ; 46-47, 65, 80, 87, 98-103
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993
Abstract: Greek and English on opposite pages. See "Index to all the lives," by J.W. Cohoon: v.11, p. 321-492.
 
Poirot III, J. Joseph
Perceptions of Classical Armenia: Romano-Parthian Relations, 70 BC-220 AD (2003)
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2003
Abstract: Relative to its importance, little research has been done on the Romano-Parthian rivalry that existed during the first two centuries AD. By extension, even less has been written concerning the kingdom of classical Armenia, which often served as the focal point of that bitter conflict. The absence of such research is regrettable, for it was this very rivalry that dictated how the Empire’s eastern border would be defined. According to many modern scholars and several of the classical authors, Romans feared the looming threat of the Parthian state. Although such panic was unfounded, this fear supposedly then prompted the Empire’s prolonged obsession with the territory of Armenia, which both the scholarly and primary sources look upon as a military buffer state. Yet in reality, Roman action in the East was not the result of a collective decision of all Roman citizens, but rather brought about by the individual wants and desires of Rome’s leaders. These leaders regarded Armenia not as a buffer state, but as a staging ground for their various campaigns against Parthia. It was their personal ambitions, rather than Rome’s collective fear, that drew Armenia under the veil of Roman hegemony. This project intends to examine Armenia’s role in the Romano- Parthian conflict and hopes to prove that Roman imperialism was not defensive, as some scholars assert, but rather the end product of the ambitions of individual Roman leaders.
 
Polanski, Tomasz
Oriental Art in Greek Imperial Literature (1998)
In: Series Bochumer Altertumswissenschaftliches Colloquium ; Bd.36
Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 1998, 262 p.
Abstract: This book discusses the work of Greek writers from Diodorus (late 1st c. BC) to Aphthonius (late 4th c. AD). Its territorial range spans the regions from Egypt, through the Holy Land to Syria. The subject addressed entails the description in the Greek literature of the art and architecture of the Ancient Near East in the second and first millenia BC, and of the Parthian art.
 
Polk, Milbry & Schuster, Angela M. H. (eds.)
The looting of the Iraq Museum, Baghdad : the lost legacy of ancient Mesopotamia (2005)
New York: Abrams, 2005
 
Pollard, Nigel
"Roman material culture across imperial frontiers? Three case studies from Parthian Dura-Europos" (2004)
In: Colvin, Stephen (ed.), The Greco-Roman East : politics, culture, society; Yale classical studies ; v. 31
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 119ff.
Abstract: Includes table of Roman and Parthian coins.
 
"Colonial and Cultural Identities in Parthian and Roman Dura-Europos" (2007)
In: Aspects of the Roman East : Papers in Honour of Professor Fergus Millar FBA [Studia Antiqua Australiensia (SAA 3)]
Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2007
 
Pollitt, Katha
"Parthians" (1982)
In: Fisketjon, Jon & Galassi, Jonathan (eds.), The Random Review 1982 : The Year's Best Fiction, Poetry and Essays
New York: Random House, 1982, 317 p.
Abstract: Poetry
 
Pope, Arthur Upham
"A Great Parthian Fortress that defied Mark Anthony" (1938)
The Illustrated London News, 1938, no. 26 Feb, p. 348-349.
 
Persian Architecture: The Triumph of Form and Color (1965)
London: Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 14-75.
Abstract: Examination of architecture in Iran and its continuity through various periods of history, ancient to modern. Chapter 1 treats Elam through Achaemenid period (ca. 3000-330 BCE); chapter 2 surveys Seleucid through Sasanian periods (311 BCE-651 AD). [MWW]
Over 400 illustrations, 33 in color. This book reveals the architectural genius of the Persian nation, from the noble Achaemenid structures of the 6th century B.C. to the refined Safavid mosques of the early 18th century. Parthian domes, Sasanian vaults to Islamic plans. Includes a thorough account of the austere early brickwork, pure delight of Persian stucco decorations, and the splendid mosaic faience incrustations of Timurid buildings. [Publisher]
 
Pope, Arthur Upham & Ackerman, Phyllis (eds.)
A Survey of Persian art from prehistoric times to the present (1981)
In: 14 volumes
New York: Maxwell Aley Literary Associates, 1981, 3 ed.
Abstract: Includes coins from the E.T. Newell collection. See esp. Vol VII, Pre-Achaemenid, Achemenid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods
Third ed., 1977; Second impression, 1981, to commemorate the centennial of Arthur Upham Pope
 
Pope, Arthur Upham; Crane, M.: & Wilber, Donald
"The Institute's Survey of Persian Architecture, Preliminary Report on Takht-i Sulayman, The Signification of the Site. Summary Description of the Extant Structures" (1937)
In: Bulletin of the American Institute for Iranian Art and Archaeology, vol. V, 1937, pp. 71-105, 25 fig.
Bulletin of the American Institute for Iranian Art and Archaeology , 1937, vol. 5, p. 71-105.
 
Porada, Edith
The Art of Ancient Iran; Pre-Islamic Culture -- The Art of Parthians (1965)
In: Art of the world, 16
London: Methuen, 1965, 279 p.
Abstract: By Edith Porada, Columbia University, with the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C.K. Wilkinson

Also published in French, L'Iran Ancien : L'Art A l'Eepoque Preislamique (Paris, Editions Albin Michel, 1968)
 
Ancient Iran; the art of pre-Islamic times. With the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C. K. Wilkinson (1965)
In: Art of the world, 16
London: Methuen, 1965, 279 p.
Abstract: The Crown Publisher's 1965 edition is titled The Art of Ancient Iran.
 
Alt-Iran (1977)
In: Kunst der Welt. Ihre geschichtlichen, soziologischen und religiösen Grundlagen
Baden-Baden: Holle, 1977, 289 p.
Abstract: Ausgezeichnete, gut bebilderte Einführung in die Kunst der Kulturen des alten Iran. Anfänge, frühe Stadtkultur, Akkad, Elam, Luristan, Goldschalen aus NW-Iran, Tepe Sialk, Hasanlu, Ziwiye, Meder, Achämeniden, Seleukiden, Parther, Sassaniden. [Publisher]
 
Porada, Edith & Ettinghausen, R.
7000 Years of Iranian Art (1964-1965)
Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965, 183 p.
Abstract: Overview: 737 catalogued objects were on view, dating from prehistoric times to the late 19th century and including pottery, metalwork of bronze, gold, and silver, weapons and jewelry, paintings, carpets, and textiles. The exhibition was made up of some 500 objects from the collection of Mohssen Foroughi, brother of the Iranian ambassador to the United States, and some 200 pieces selected from the archaeological museum in Tehran by Richard Ettinghausen. The Foroughi collection had been shown in 6 European museums in 1961-1963 (Sept Mille Ans d'Art en Iran). 12 objects considered to be of doubtful authenticity were withdrawn. The show was opened by the Shah and the Empress Farah, who were in Washington to discuss increased foreign aid to Iran with President Lyndon Johnson.

Other venues:
National Gallery of Art, 7 June-19 July 1964
Denver Art Museum
William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Cleveland Museum of Art
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
 
Posch, W.
"Chinesische Quellen zu den Parthern" (1996)
In: Wiesehöfer, Josef (ed.), Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse - The Arsacid Empire : Sources and Documentation. Beiträge des Internationalen Colloquiums, Eutin (27.-30. Juni 1996). Historia-Einzelschriften, 122
Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998, p. 355-364.
 
Post, A.
"Partische Gurtelschnallen aus Iran" (1995)
Boreas, 1995, vol. 18, p. 247-254.
 
Postel, Rainer
Katalog der antiken Münzen in der Hamburger Kunsthalle (1976)
In: 2 volumes
Hamburg: H. Christian, 1976
Abstract: Catalog numbers 240-245 are Parthian.
 
Postgate, J. P.
"Further Notes on Lucan VIII" (1907)
Classical Quarterly, 1907, vol. 1, no. 2/3 (Jul), p. 216-222.
 
Potter, D.
"The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East  by Benjamin Isaac"  (book review) (1990)
xiv+492 p.
Abstract: 5 maps at end.
 
Bibliography - Page 48

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