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Riedlberger, P.
"Die Restauration von Chosroes II" (1998)
In: Dabrowa, Edward, Ancient Iran and the mediterranean world. Proceedings of an international conference in honour of Professor Józef Wolski held at the Jagiellonian university, Cracow, in September 1996 (Electrum. Studies in Ancient History. 2.)
1998
 
Rives, Robert G.
"Parthian drachm coin measurements and conclusions" (2004)
The Celator, 2004, vol. 18, no. 11 (Nov), p. 30-31, 34-35.
 
Robbins, Royal
The world displayed, in its history and geography; embracing a history of the world, from the creation to the present day (1830)
New York: W. W. Reed & Co., 1830
 
Outlines of ancient and modern history on a new plan... Vol 1, Ancient History (1850)
Hartford: Belknap And Hammersley, 1850
Abstract: Full title: Outlines of ancient and modern history on a new plan : embracing biographical notices of illustrious persons, and general views of the geography, population, politics, religion, military and naval affairs, arts, literature, manners, customs, and society, of ancient and modern nations. Accompanied by a series of questions, and illustrated with engravings.
Volume I. Ancient History. AntedeluvianPeriod. From the Creation of the World to the Deluge. History of Assyri China Egypt Hebrews Caanites Greece Israelites Phoenicians Lydia Italy Macedon Carthage Romans Jews Nineveh Babylon Medes Persia Sicily Syria Parthia Judea.
 
Robert, Louis
"Une Inscription hellénistique d'Iran" (1960)
In: Hellenica; recueil d'épigraphie de numismatique et d'antiquités grecques, vol 11-12
1960, vol. 11-12, p. 85-91.
Abstract: Coins of Andragoras in east of Seleucid empire, ca. 245 B.C.
Also cited by Koshelenko writing on the history of the Arsacids.
 
"Encore une inscription grecque de l'Iran" (1967)
Comptes rendus de l'académie des inscriptions, 1967, p. 281-297.
 
Robert, Louis; Tod, Marcus Niebuhr & Ziebarth, E.
"Susiana - 1. Epistula regis Artabani III ad Susianos, m. Dec. a. 21" (1934)
Supplementum epigraphicum graecum, 1934, vol. 7, p. 1-10.
 
Robinson, David M.
"A Graeco-Parthian portrait head of Mithridates I" (1927)
American Journal of Archaeology, 1927, tome/ser. 2nd, vol. 31, no. 3 (July), p. 338-344.
 
Robinson, Edward S. G.
"Greek coins Acquired by the British Museum, 1938-1948" (1948)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1948, tome/ser. 6, vol. 8, p. 48-56.
Abstract: Discusses satrapal portrait coins. No Parthian.
 
Rochan Zamir-Dahncke, M.
[Title? a new facing head drachm of Elymais] (1976)
In: Proceedings of the VII th International Congress of Iranian Art and Archeology, Munich, 7-10 Sep 1976
Munich: 1979, p. 346-348.
Abstract: Describes a new facing head drachm with Artemis reverse and an Aramaic legend naming "King Orodes, son of Orodes". She identifies this ruler with the Kamnaskires-Orodes known from tetradrachms, who ruled at the beginning of the second century A.D., and notes that the drachm would appear to contradict Le Rider's hypothesis that only small bronzes were struck at Susa in this period. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986]
 
"Phraates: Ein bisher unbekannter Herscher in der Charakene" (1977)
Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, 1977, vol. 10, p. 209-210.
Abstract: Records a bronze tetradrachm belonging to the late series of Spasinou-Charax with a legend clearly reading P T (=Phraates), a new ruler for this period. Another possible specimen is the worn tetradrachm in the Cabinet des Medailles whose legend Le Rider reads as BA, which he expanded to "Phobas". [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 193]]
 
Rochette, Edward C.
"The prophecy of the coins" (1991)
The Numismatist, 1991, vol. 104, no. 9 (Sep), p. 1450-1451.
Abstract: Discusses St. Thomas and coins of Gundaphorus from Afghanistan.
 
Rodee, H. David
"Art History on Persian and Phoenician Coinage" (1956)
In: Ancient and Medieval Coins: Selections from The Numismatist.
Racine: Whitman Publishing Co., 1960, p. 163-171.
Abstract: Reprinted from The Numismatist, Nov 1956. The focus is on Persian art and Phoenicia, specificially excluding references to the Parthian kings.
 
Rodgers, Charles J.
Catalogue of the coins collected by Charles J. Rodgers and purchased by the Government of Panjab (1893)
Calcutta: 1893
Abstract: Vol. 1: Mughal and Suri Sultans of India
Vol. 2: Miscellaneous Muhammadan coins
Vol. 3: Græco-Bactrian
Vol. 4: Miscellanea
 
Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum [Calcutta] (1893-1896)
In: 4 vols
Calcutta: Trustees of the Indian Museum, 1893
 
Græco-Bactrian and Indo-Scythian, Parthian, Sassanian and miscellaneous coins (1896)
In: Catalogue of the coins of the Indian Museum [Calcutta], vol. 3
Calcutta: 1896, 288 p.
Abstract: Vol. 3: Græco-Bactrian: presents an enchanting variety of coins. Not only are included here the coins of the Græco-Bactrian and Indo-Skythian kings, but also the Parthian, Selukidian, Roman & Byzantine coins. It also catalogues coins of ancient India, some of which were probably among the ones current at the time of Alexander's invasion. [publisher]
 
Rogers, E.
"Rare and Unpublished Coins of the Seleucid Kings of Syria" (1912)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1912, tome/ser. 4, vol. 12, p. 237-264.
 
Rohden, P. v.
"Abdagaeses" (1894)
In: RE 1
1894, 21 p.
 
"Abdus" (1894)
In: RE 1
1894, 27 p.
 
Roller, Duane W.
The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier (2003)
London: Routledge, 2003
Abstract: Chapter 9, "The Eastern Expedition with Gaius Caesar", describes the scholars who accompanied Gaius on his circa 2 BC expedition to deal with succession problems in Armenia and Parthia: Isadore of Charax and the client kings Juba (Mauretania) and Archelaos (Kappadokia). There are also a few other mentions of Parthia throughout the book.
 
Rollin, Charles
Histoire romaine depuis la fondation de Rome jusqu'a la bataille d'Actium, Tome XV (1748)
Paris: Chez la veuve Estienne & fils, 1748, vol. 15, 518 p.
Abstract: Contenu:

Plaintes de Brutus contre Cicéron, contenus dans deux lettres, l'une à Cicéron lui-même, l'autre à Atticus. Fondation de la ville de Lyon. Octavien fait condamner juridiquement ceux qui avaient tué César.... Domitius qui n'avait point eu part à l'action est compris dans la condamnation; Octavien fait périr Q.gallius prêteur de la ville. Il fait révoquer par le Sénat les Décrets rendus contre Antoine. Octavien, Antoine & Lépidus se réunissent; Leur entrevue dans une isle du réno. Ils contestent sur ceux qu'ils doivent proscrire; Echange de la tête de Cicéron contre celles de l'oncle d'Antoine & du frère de Lépidus. Octavien autant & plus cruel que ses collègues.... Mort de Cicéron; Invectives des Ecrivains en tout genre contre Antoine au sujet de cette mort; Pourquoi Octavien a été épargné. Portrait de Cicéron. Mot de Brutus sur sa mort. C.Antonius tué par représailles....

Mouvement des Parthes .Guidés par Labiénus le fils, ils envahissent la Syrie; Ils établissent Antigonus Roi de la Judée & emmènent prisonnier Hyrcan. Labiénus soumet la Cilicie & pénètre jusques dans la Carie. Ventidius lieutenant d'Antoine arrive & remporte sur les Parthes deux victoires consécutives. Antoine jaloux de la gloire de Ventidius, part d'Athènes pous se mettre à la tête de ses armées; troisième victoire de Ventidius ou périt Pacorus Prince des Parthes. Ventidius n'ose pousser ses avantages, de peur d'irriter la jalousie d'Antoine; Siège de Samosates, dont le succès ne fait pas d'honneur à Antoine; Triomphe de Ventidius; Prise de jérusalem par Sosius & par Hérode....
 
"The History of the Parthians" (1856)
In: Farr, Edward (ed.), Ancient History: Containing the History of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Medes, Lydians, Carthaginians, Persians, Macedonians, the Seleucidæ in Syria, and Parthians from Rollin, and other Authentic Sources, both Ancient and Modern, Volume IV.
Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys & Co., 1856, p. 341-362.
Abstract: A very readable and succinct history, written in a charming mid-nineteenth century tone with a strong Christian moralist undercurrent, but substantially factual even in the light of more modern research and finds. Unfortunately, it only makes passing reference to the sources and Farr fails to defend such positions as the Parthian orgins being indigenous Persian, not Saka or other immigrant peoples.
 
Rollin, Charles, & Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis
Histoire romaine depuis la fondation de Rome jusqu'a la bataille d'Actium (1748-1754)
In: 16 volumes
Paris: Chez la veuve Estienne & fils, 1748
Abstract: Note Tomes 8-9, revû et rendu complet par M. Crevier: t.10-16 par M. Crevier, pour servir de continuation a l'ouvrage de M. Rollin
 
Romania, Socialist Republic of
Arta iranianä in collectiile din Republica Socialista România. Expozitia [L'art iranien dan les collections de la République Socialiste de la Roumanie. Exposition. In Romanian] (1971)
Bucharest: 1971, 80 p.
Abstract: Coins at the exhibition include a siglos of Artaxerxes I, darics of Artaxerxes III, a stater issued by Maxeus, satrap at Soli, a hemilepton of Strato II, drachms and tetradrachms of the kings of Parthia from Mithradates II to Artabanus V and tomans of the Kajar shahs. [Gh. Poenaru Bordea]
 
Root, Margaret Cool
"Seals from Seleucia. Part II: The Hellenistic and Parthian Corpus" (In prep)
Abstract: Listed on her personal page at http://www.umich.edu/~hartspc/histart/faculty/root.html
 
Rose, Charles Brian
"The Parthians in Augustan Rome" (2005)
American Journal of Archaeology, 2005, vol. 109, no. 1 (Jan), p. 21-75.
Abstract: This article considers the conception and commemoration of foreigners, especially Parthians, as diagrammed in the triumphal imagery of Augustan Rome. The interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography during the Augustan period is analyzed, as is the new attitude toward the representation of foreigners that developed in Rome during the early Empire, when barbarians were presented as contributors to peace rather than its opponents. The focus is the general topographical context of the Parthian Arch on the east side of the Roman Forum, but the article also includes new iconographic readings of the Primaporta cuirass, the Ara Pacis, the Basilica Aemilia Parthians, and the altar from the Vicus Sandaliarius, as well as triumphal monuments in Athens, Corinth, and Antioch-in-Pisidia. The cuirassed figure facing the Parthian on the Primaporta breastplate is identified as Roma, and the Eastern woman and child on the south frieze of the Ara Pacis are linked to the Parthian royal family resident in Rome during the Augustan period. A triumphal arch celebrating Gaius Caesar’s success over the Parthians is reconstructed between the Basilica Aemilia and the temple of Divus Julius, and its decoration was clearly designed to complement that of the adjacent Parthian Arch and the Temple of the Dioscuri. The imagery on the eastern side of the Roman Forum can be read as a program outlining the Julian dynasty’s involvement with the Parthians, and suggesting that the East had finally been domesticated. [Author]
 
Rosenfield, John M.
The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans (1967)
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967, 377 p.
Abstract: Weight and money standards, monograms, dieties pictured, distribution in South India and finds in eastern India are discussed for Graeco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek, Gupta, Parthian, Saka and some Roman coinage.
 
Ross, E. Denison
Persian art (1930)
London: Luzac and Company, 1930, 107 p.
Abstract: Pub. for the International Exhibition of Persian Art, Royal Academy 1931.
--Historical introduction, by E.D. Ross
--Persian art, by R. Fry
--Early Persian art, by C.J. Gadd
--Architecture, by K.A.C. Creswell
--Painting, by L. Binyon
--Pottery and glass, by B. Rackham
--Textile art, by L. Ashton
--Carpets, by C.E.C. Tattersall
--Metal-work, by L. Ashton
 
The Persians (1931)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931, 142 p.
 
Ross, Steven Kirk
Towards Roman Edessa: 114-242 C.E. (1997)
1997
Abstract: The ancient city of Edessa (modern-day Urfa, Turkey) is studied from the point of view of politics, society and culture during a period of increasing Roman involvement in the East, beginning with Trajan's Parthian War (114- 116 C.E.). Well-watered and located on an important trade route, Edessa (founded ca. 304 B.C.E.) saw major urban development in the Seleucid period, but came under Parthian influence at the end of the second century. Its rulers--the Abgarid dynasty with Arab/Nabataean connections--pursued a semi-independent policy until Edessa came permanently within the Roman orbit under Septimius Severus (194 C.E.). The dissertation clarifies the process of absorption into the empire using epigraphic, numismatic and historical material, some recently discovered. Analyzing newly published documents and the coins of Edessa's last king, Abgar X (239-242 C.E.), it concludes that this king took his throne in service to Rome during the confrontation with Sassanid Persia, holding an official 'consulship,' perhaps signifying a regional governorship. A major section takes up the cultural life and antecedents of Edessa, which in the later period became a center of Christian activity and an important link in the transmission of Classical literature via Syriac and Arabic. Focusing on Edessene religion, on Bardai san, the 'first Syriac philosopher,' and on artistic influences as reflected in funerary mosaics, it concludes that the period beginning with Abgar VIII was a Golden Age of prosperity and cultural production. Greek, Semitic and Persian cultural influences contributed to a unique culture that could be called neither 'eastern' nor 'western' in its primary orientation. Although the earliest preserved Syriac literature contains concepts derived from Greek philosophy, evidence for the first two centuries of the Common Era is scarce, and no firm conclusions can be drawn about the extent of Hellenization at Edessa before the arrival of Christianity. The famous myth of an exchange of letters between a King Abgar and Jesus is shown to have no basis in fact, and not to reflect--as has been widely thought-- the conversion of a later king to Christianity. [Author]
 
Rostovtzeff, M. I.
Iranians and Greeks in south Russia (1922)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922
 
"Inlaid Bronzes of the Han Dynasty in the collection of C. T. Loo" (1927)
Paris: G. Vanoest, 1927, 76 p.
Abstract: Oncludes interesting thoughts on the diffusion of Greek and Iranian art to China, some mentions of the "Parthian shot" from horseback, and discussion of the flying gallop and its (probably) Minoan origins. See The American Historical Review, vol. 33, no. 2, Jan 1928, p. 491.
 
The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Preliminary Report of Second Season of Work, October 1928-April 1929 (1931)
In: Yale Classical Studies
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931
 
The Excavations at Dura-Europos Conducted by Yale University and the French Academy of Inscriptions and Letters: Preliminary Report of Fifth Season of Work, October 1931-March 1932 (1931-1932)
In: Yale Classical Studies
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934
 
"Seleucid Babylonia, Bullae and Seals of Clat with Greek Inscriptions" (1932)
In: Yale Classical Studies, vol. 3
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1932
 
Caravan Cities (1932)
Oxford: 1932
 
"L'hellenisme en Mésopotamie" (1933)
Scientia, 1933, vol. 153, p. 110-124.
Abstract: Pge 120 f provides comentary on the F. Cumont edition of the Artabanus III letter to Susa, validating the election of the city treasurer.
 
"Dura and the Problem of Parthian Art" (1935)
In: Yale Classical Studies, vol. 5
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1935, p. 155-304.
 
"Early Christian and Judean Art in Mesopotamia; Recent Discoveries at Dura-Europos" (1935)
In: Proceedings of the British Academy
London: 1935
 
"The Sarmathae and Parthians" (1936)
In: Cook, S. A.; Adcock, F.E. & Charlesworth, M. P. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 11. The Imperial Peace. A.D. 70 - 192
Cambridge: 1936, p. 91-130.
 
"Parthian art and the motive of the flying gallop" (1937)
In: Independence, convergence, and borrowing in institutions, thought, and art. Harvard Tercentenary Conference of Arts and Sciences (1936 : Cambridge, Mass.)
1937, p. 44-56.
Abstract: Paper presented at a symposium of the Harvard tercentenary conference of arts and sciences (August 31-September 12, 1936)
 
Dura Europos and its Art (1938)
Oxford: 1938
 
"Kaiser Trajan and Dura" (1938)
Klio, 1938, vol. 31, p. 285-292.
 
The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World (1941)
In: 3 vols.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972
Abstract: First published 1941; reprinted from corrected sheets of the 1st ed., 1953, 1959, 1964, 1967, 1972; re-issued 1986.
"Index of sources": v.3, p. 1750-1779
Bibliography included in "Notes" (v.3, p. 1313-1631)
 
"The Parthian Shot" (1943)
American Journal of Archaeology, 1943, vol. 42, p. 174-187.
 
"Syria and the East" (1984)
In: The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 7
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 91-130.
 
Rostovtzeff, M. I. and Welles, C. B.
"A Parchment Contract of Loan from Dura Europus on the Euphrates" (1931)
In: Yale Classical Studies, vol. 2
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931, p. 1-78.
Abstract: Title also seen cited as "A Parchment Contract from Dura"
 
Rostovtzeff, M. I.; Bellinger, Alfred R.; Brown, F. E. & Welles, C. B. (eds.)
The excavations at Dura-Europos, final report IV (1943)
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943
 
Rougemont, Georges
"Inscriptions grecques d'Iran" (1999)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Empires Perses d'Alexandre aux Sassanides
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 1999, no. 243, p. 6-7.
 
Bibliography - Page 51

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