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Rakhmanov, Shoimardan
"Les 'Portes de Fer', près de Derbent" (1999)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Empires Perses d'Alexandre aux Sassanides
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 1999, no. 243, p. 18-19.
 
Ramsay
Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia (1904)
New York: A.C. Armstrong & Son, 1904
 
Rao, V. P. S.
"On a rare silver tetradrachm of Vonones" (1982)
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1982, vol. 44 Pts. 1-2, p. 37-38.
Abstract: The tetradrachm carries an equestrian portrait on the obverse with a standing Zeus and the name of Spalahore in Kharoshthi on the reverse. (P. L. Gupta)
 
Rapin, C.
"Nomads and the shaping of Central Asia: from the early Iron Age to the Kushan period" (2007)
In: Cribb, Joe & Herrmann, Georgina (eds.), After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam. Proceedings of the British Academy ; 133
London: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 29-72.
 
Rappaport, U.
"The Jews between Rome and Parthia" (1989)
In: French, D. H. & Lightfoot, Chris S. (eds.), The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire : proceedings of a colloquium held at Ankara in September 1988 ; Monograph (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara) ; no. 11
BAR international series ; 553
Oxford, England: B.A.R., 1989
 
Rapson, Edward J.
"Markoff's unpublished coins of the Arsacidae" (1893)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1893, tome/ser. 3, vol. 13, p. 203-219.
Abstract: "But little has been written on Parthian numismatics, with the important exception of Markoff's Coins of the Arsacidae, St. Petersburg, 1892 (text in Russian), in which, as also in Mr. Rapson's able review of the work (Num. Chron., 1893, p. 203 f.), some new coins of the highest importance have been made known." -- Wroth [BMC Parthia, p. xv.] Wroth also mentions this article as Rapson proposed the possibility of some dates on coins being in the Parthian Era instead of the Seleucid Era. [BMC Parthia, p. 21]
 
Indian coins (1897)
In: Bühler, G. (ed.), Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie, II Bd., 3 Hft. B
San Diego, CA: Malter-Westerfield Pub. Co., 1967, 56 p.
Abstract: Reprints (1967, 1969) titled The coinage of ancient and medieval India
An important early work on this complex numismatic topic. Covers early foreign coinages in India (Alexandrian, Persian, Parthian, Roman, Sassanian); Graeco-Indian coinages; Scythic coinages; coinages of the native Indian states (Almora, Aparanta, Eran, Kuninda, etc.); Indo-Partian coinages; Kusana coinages (and coinages of their contemporaries, such as the Nanda kings of Karwar); coinages of the Guptas & their contemporaries; etc.
 
"Ancient Coins Collected in Seistan by Mr. G.P. Tate" (1904)
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1904, p. 673-680.
Abstract: "Tate's collection of coins found in Baluchistan" included a few local copies of Greek silver coins of Athens and Alexander, silver Seleucid and Bactrian coins, copper tetradrachms of the Indo-Parthian kings Orthagnes and Pacores and Parthian drachms of which two had the rare Indo-Parthian counter-mark, providing important evidence for the currency of the area." --Sophie P.B. MacDowall, "British Travellers in Afghanistan: Early contributions to archaeology and numismatics", in Ex Moneta (1998), vol 2.
 
Ancient India from the Earliest Times to the First Century A.D. (1914)
In: Hinduism, Buddhism, Alexander, Hellenistic, Bactria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Parthia, Hellenism
Chicago: 1974, viii+199 p.
Abstract: Trade paperback reprint of the London edition.
 
"The Scythian and Parthian invaders" (1922)
In: Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, chapt. 23, pls. 7-8
New York: Macmillan and Co., 1922
 
Raschke, Manfred G.
"New Studies in Roman Commerce with the East" (1978)
In: ANRW Principat II.9.2
Aufstieg und Nidergang der römischen Welt, 1978, vol. 2, no. 9.2, p. 604-1378.
 
Rastorgueva, V. S. & Molcanova, E. K.
"Parfjanskij jazyk" (1981)
In: Osnovy iranskogo jazykoznanija: Sredneirankie jazyki
Moscow: 1981, p. 147-232.
Abstract: The only grammar of the Parthian language, apart from the article by Werner Sundermann in Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum.
 
Rastorgueva, V. S. (ed.)
Opyt istoriko-tipologiceskogo issledovanija iranskih jazykov. I-II (1975)
Moscow: 1975
 
Rasulova, M. M.
"Greko-Rimskie i arshakidskie monety iz pogrebenii i ikh znzchie dlia izucheniia sviazei Azerbaidzhana s antichnym mirom" [Graeco-Roman and Arscid coins from a burial site and their significance for the study of ties between Azerbaidzhan and the...] (1965
In: Nauchnye Trudy Aspirantov. Materialy Nauchnoi Knfeerentsii, ianvar' 1965 g. [Research by graduate students. Materials of a scientific conference, Jan 1965]
Baku: Azebaidzhanskii Universitet, 1966, p. 114-121.
Abstract: The circumstances of the discovery of ancient coins, particularly Augustan denarii and Artabanus II drachms, in burial grounds in Azerbaidzhan are discussed. In most cases, the coins were Charon's obols. [K. V. Golenko]
 
"Numizmaticheskie nakhodki kak istochnik izucheniia sviazei Kavkazskoi Albanni s ellinistcheskim mirom" [Numismatic finds as a source for studying ties between Caucasian Albania and the Hellenistic world] (1971)
In: Uchenye zapiski Azerbaidzhanskogo Gosudarst-vennogo Universiteta. Seriia istorii i filosofii [Notes of the Azerbaidzhan State University. History and Philosophy series. No. 7]
p. 17-22.
Abstract: Coins of the Hellenistic period, mainly silver of Alexander the Great and the kings of Syria and Parthia found in Azerbaidzhan, are analyzed.
 
Rawlinson, George
The sixth great Oriental monarchy; or, The geography, history, & antiquities of Parthia, collected and illustrated from ancient and modern sources (1873)
In: The seven great monarchies of the ancient eastern world
London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1873, xiii+[2]+458 p.
Abstract: Rawlinson's later work Parthia (1893) is mainly an abridgement of The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy (1873). "George Rawlinson based most of this work on Classical sources, but he did use other sources available to him in translation and his work remained a standard history of ancient Iran for many years. It should be mentioned that the vast lands in eastern Iran (including Afghanistan) and Central Asia were largely untouched in Rawlinson's writings." [Frye, xi]. See review: "Almost, if not wholly, free from the sins and offences of his earlier books... It was well that the history of this monarchy should be written in detail." [Sat. Rev., xxxv. 818]
 
The seven great monarchies of the ancient eastern world, vol. 3, Parthia, New Persia (1875)
Chicago: Belford, Clarke, 1875
 
A manual of ancient history, from the earliest times to the fall of the Sassanian empire. Comprising the history of Chaldaea, Assyria, Media, Babylonia, Lydia, Phoenicia, Syria, Judaea, Egypt, Carthage, Persia, Greece, Macedonia, Rome, and Parthia (1880)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1880, 2 ed., xii+608 p.
 
The story of Parthia (1893)
In: Story of the nations. Parthia
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1893, 1 ed., xx+432 p.
Abstract: Rawlinson's later work Parthia (1893) is mainly an abridgement of The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy (1873).
 
The story of Parthia (1895)
In: Famous nations, the stories of peoples which have attained prominence in history, v. 19, pt. 2
New York: Putnam, 1895
 
Rawson, Elizabeth
"Crassorum Funera" (1982)
Latomus, 1982, vol. 41, p. 540-549.
Abstract: Rawson critiques discussions of Roman specialists/Crassus biographers on the Carrhae war, esp. motivations for it and literary sources behind Plutarch and Dio. She's an eminent specialist on 2nd-1st century BC Roman literature, always worth reading. The paper's title is from Ovid Fasti v.583. [Mark Passehl]
 
Rayevsky, D. S.
"K voprosu ob obosnovanii tsarkoi vlasti v Parfii ("Parfyansky luchnik" i ego semantika)" (1977)
In: Sredniaia Aziia v drevnosti i srednevekov'ye (istoriya i kul'tura)
Moskow: 1977, p. 81-86.
 
Reade, J. E.
"Three Hoards from Babylonia in the British Museum" (1994)
In: Wartenberg, Ute, Price, Martin J. & McGregor, K. A. (eds.), Coin Hoards Vol. VIII
London: Royal Numismatic Society, 1994, p. 88-89.
Abstract: Coin Hoards 552 and 556 are discussed. These are documentation for hoards discovered in the 1880s containing Parthian coins.
 
"Greco-Parthian Nineveh" (1998)
Iraq, 1998, vol. 60
 
Reck, Christiane
"Ein weiterer parthischer Montagshymnus?" (1992)
Altorientalische Forschungen, 1992, vol. 19, p. 342-349.
Abstract: This is the (first and only) edition of the titled Parthian hymn.
 
Reck, Christiane (ed.)
Gesegnet sei dieser Tag. Manichaeische Festtagshymnen. Edition der mittelpersischen und parthischen Sonntag-, Montags- und Bemahymnen (2004)
In: Berliner Turfantexte 22
Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2004, 214 p.
Abstract: The book (a long-awaited revised version of the author's PhD thesis) contains the edition (with translation and commentary) of a number of fragments (some Middle Persian, some Parthian) the text of which may be assigned to hymns designed for certain Manichaean holidays. There are chapters about these holidays, about MP/Prth. hymns in general, metrical analysis etc., a glossary and photos of all fragments which have not been published recently. [Agnes Korn]

The Manichaean literature includes a great number of hymns, poems and prayers. Some of the best preserved parts of them are dedicated to the Manichaean holy days, Sunday, Monday and the annual Bema festival. These holy days are primarily important because of the confessional rituals which took place at this time. Though most of the hymns are incompletely preserved they allow some conclusions on the distinction of these feast days. The hymns are in Parthian and in Middle Persian, but were presumably copied by Uigur scribes during the period of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. In this volume nearly 50 fragments of book pages are edited and examined. Nearly all are published here for the first time. Some of them contain lists of initial lines, listed with regard to the contents or according to melodies. The detailed introduction deals with the Sitz im Leben of these hymns, a comparison with the relevant hymns in other languages such as Coptic, Chinese and Uigur and a description of versification and stylistic means. This material makes new Manichaean original sources available and extends our knowledge about the liturgical traditions of the Manichaean community on Central Asia. [Publisher]
 
Redgate, Anne Elizabeth
The Armenians (1998)
In: Peoples of Europe
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998, 331 p.
Abstract: See esp. Ch. 5 Arsacid Rule: Tiridates I to Tiridates IV, A.D. 66-A.D. 298/9, p. 88
 
Regling, Kurt L.
De Belli Parthici Crassiani fontibus (thesis) (1899)
Berlin: Mayer et Mueller, 1899, 60 p.
Abstract: Dissertation--Berlin
 
De Belli Parthici Crassiani fontibus (1899)
Berolini, 1899, 60 p.
 
"Romische aurei aus dem Funde von Karnak" (1903)
In: Beiträge zur alten Geschichte und griechisch-römischen Alterthumskunde. Festschrift zu Otto Hirschfelds sechzigstem Geburtstage
Berlin: Weidmann, 1903
 
"Crassus' Partherkrieg" (1907)
Klio, 1907, vol. 7, p. 357-394.
 
"Hellinistischer Münzschatz aus Babylon" (1928)
Zeitschrift für Numismatik, 1928, vol. 38, p. 92-132.
 
Reichelt, H.
"Iranisch" (1927)
In: Grundriß der indogermanischen Sprach-und Altertumskunde II: Die Erforschung der indogermanischen Sprachen, 4, 2
Berlin-Leipzig: 1927, p. 1-84.
 
Reinach, Théodore
"Les monnaies arsacides et l'origine du calendrier juif" (1889)
Revue Numismatique, 1889, tome/ser. 3, vol. 7, p. 385-392.
Abstract: Cited by Wroth [BMC, p. lxvi] who also cites personal correspondence with Reinach as to the dating on Parthian coins.
 
L'histoire par les monnaies; essais de numismatique ancienne (1902)
Paris: E. Léroux, 1902, iv+269 p.
 
Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint
Memoire sur le commencement et la fin du royaume de la Mesene et de la Kharacene, et sur l'epoque de la redaction du Periple de la mer Erythree d'apres les temoignages grecs, latins, arabes, persans, indiens et chinois (1861)
Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1861
Abstract: "Read at the Academy of inscriptions and literature, sessions of September and October 1859, February and March 1860, and accompanied by some additions."
 
Reis, Bob
"Parthian Coins" (1999)
1999
Abstract: 16 Nov 1999. Article on the Collector's Universe website with a brief overview of Parthian history and its coinage.
 
Rempel, L. I.
"Terrakoty Merva i glinianye statui Nisy" [The terra-cottas of Merv and the clay statues of Nisa] (1949)
In: TIUTAKE (Trudy IUzhno-Turkmenistanskoi arkheologicheskoi kmpleksnoi ekspeditsii) [Southern Turkmenistan Archeological Complex Expedition], vol. 1
Ashkabad: 1949
 
"Novye materialy k izucheniiu drevnei skul'ptury IUzhnoi Turkmenii" [New materials toward the investigation of the ancient sculpture of southern Turkmenia] (1953)
In: TIUTAKE (Trudy IUzhno-Turkmenistanskoi arkheologicheskoi kmpleksnoi ekspeditsii) [Southern Turkmenistan Archeological Complex Expedition], vol. 2
1953
 
Reuther, Oscar
Die Innenstadt von Babylon (Merkes) (1926)
Leipzig: 1926
 
"The German Excavations at Ctesiphon" (1929)
Antiquity, 1929, vol. 3, p. 434-451.
Abstract: Translated from the German by Roland G. Austin (Glasgow University).
Plates accompanying the article include four phenominal air reconnaisance photos (pl. 1-4 ) of the arch of Ctesiphon. This report of excavations attributes the arch to Sasanians as their capitol city. The old Tigris river flowed between Seleucia and Ctesiphon, but its course has changed since antiquity to flow through Ctesiphon, dividing it and placing a large portion of the ruins on the same side of the river as Seleucia.
 
"Parthian Architecture" (1938)
In: Pope, Arthur Upham & Ackerman, Phyllis (eds.), A Survey of Persian art from prehistoric times to the present (1981 Centennial edition), vol. 1
New York: Maxwell Aley Literary Associates, 1981, 3 ed., p. 411-444.
 
Rezaeian, Farzin
Iran: Seven Faces of Civilization (2007)
Canada: Sunrise Visual Innovations Ltd., 2007
Abstract: Drawing on historical and archeological evidence, this fascinating documentary by Dr. Farzin Rezaeian reconstructs 7,000 years of Iranian history. The film's advanced animation techniques bring ancient wonders to life, giving an unprecedented look at Iran's historical and cultural achievements.

In his accompanying book, Rezaeian has reconstructed the major monuments from seven key periods in Iranian history, bringing to life the settings in which Iranian civilization developed and the context through which the greatest figures of Iranian history, from Cyrus the Great (the Achaemenid Emperor) to Shah Abbas (the Safavid King), can be understood "Farzin Rezaeian is an award-winning documentary and educational film producer and director. For the past twenty years, he has researched and written for many educational and documentary films that he has produced or directed at Sunrise Film Productions. (Publisher)
 
Rezai Baghbidi, Hassan
Dastur zabān Pārthī (Pahlavī aškāni) = A grammar of Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi) (2002)
Tehran: Iranian Academy of Persian Language and Literature, 2002, 182 p.
Abstract: Contains many examples of Parthian texts (including those on coins), their up-to-date transliterations and translations.
 
"Parthian History and Language" (2004)
2004
 
Râhnamâ-ye zabân-e pârtî (pahlavî-ye aškanî) [A Manual of Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi)] (2006)
Tehran: Qoqnûs, 2006
 
Rezakhani, Khodadad
"Tīrdād and Ardavān: A New Look at the Genealogy of the Early Arsacids" (In press)
In: Journal of Centre for Social Science Research,
Linguistics and History
2004
 
Rich, John W.
"Augustus's Parthian honours, the temple of Mars Ultor and the arch in the Forum Romanum" (1998)
In: Papers of the British School at Rome 66
1998, p. 71-128.
 
Ridpath, John Clark
"Parthia. Greece. Macedonia" (1940)
In: Ridpath's history of the world : the development of social institutions and the story of all nations, v. 2.
Cincinnati, Ohio: Ridpath Historical Society, 1940
Abstract: Full title: Ridpath's history of the world : being an account of the principal events in the career of the human race from the beginnings of civilization to the present time, comprising the development of social institutions and the story of all nations from recent and authentic sources complete in nine volumes
 
Bibliography - Page 50

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