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Simonetta, Bono (continued)
"Tetradrammi partici firmati" (1983)
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1983, vol. 33, p. 2-4.
Abstract: Also as SM 129 (Feb, 1983), pp. 2-4? Simonetta publishes two tetradrachms (of Orodes II and Phraates IV) whose monograms, he believes, indicate the dates of issue and do not represent die engravers. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 195]
"Brevi note di numismatica Partica: Chalkoi di Arsaces II" (1986)
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1986, vol. 36, no. 144 (Nov), p. 88-92.
"Tetradrammi firmati da Phraates IV" (1987)
In: Bollettino di numismatica. suppl. al n. 4 (1987) (Studi per Laura Breglia, v. 1)
1987, p. 257-260.
Abstract: Is this the same as his 1983 article of same title in SM 33 (Feb, 1983), pp. 2-4?
"Note di numismatica partica: la monetazione di Tiridates (c.30-26 a.C.)" (1987)
Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau, 1987, vol. 66, p. 87-100.
Abstract: The coinage of the Parthian kings Phraates IV and Tiridates is studied with emphasis on the years 28-26 B.C. (Silvia Hurter)
"Sui chalkoi di Arsaces II" (1987)
In: [another reference indicates SM 38 vice 36]
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1987, vol. 36, no. 149 (Aug), p. 2-3.
"Pacoro nella storia e nelle monete : una nuova ipotesi sulle monete attribuite a Pacoro I" (1988)
In: Memorie dell'Accademia italiana di studi filatelici e numismatici v. 3, fasc. 3
1988, p. 111-115.
"Monete della Persidia de tipo partico" (1988)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1988, vol. 17, p. 261-267.
Abstract: The author presents a group of 19 diobols of various provenances, with particular reference to the issues of 2 princes in Persia, vassals of the Parthians, dating from the end of the 1st and the beginning of the 2nd century AD. (Andrea Carignani)
Simonetta, Bono & Simonetta, Alberto M.
"Le vicende di Fraate IV, Re die Parti, ricostruite con l'aiuto dei tetradrammi da lui coniati" (1949)
Numismatica, 1949, vol. 15, no. 106, p. 37-46.
Simons, Geoffrey L.
Iraq : from Sumer to Saddam (1996)
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996, 2 ed., 444 p.
Abstract: See Romans and Parthians p. 136-137 for an excellent thumbnail sketch of Parthian history.
Simpson, Adelaide D.
"The departure of Crassus for Parthia" (1938)
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 1938, vol. 69, p. 532-541.
Abstract: This paper deals with the reliability of evidence in Plutarch and authors of his period for events in earlier centuries, and specifically with the obstructions which attended Crassus's departure from Rome in 55 B.C. It shows that there is ample evidence for the report of dirae, but none for the arrest and cursing of Crassus as these appear in non-contemporary authors; these picturesque additions are due to confusion of the consuls Crassus Mucianus and Crassus Dives, and the tribunes Atinius and Ateius, and possibly to a confusion of Crassus Dives with Gabinius, his predecessor in Syria.
Simpson, C. J.
"On the Unreality of the Parthian Arch" (1992)
Latomus, 1992, vol. 51, no. 4, p. 835-842.
Simpson, St. John
"'Baubo' at Merv" (2004)
In: Parthia and beyond. Cultural interconnections in the classical period. Papers in honour of Gennadij A. Koselenko
Parthica, 2004, vol. 6
Simpson, W. K.
[Parthian figurines] (1971-1972)
In: Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Annual Report
Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1972, 53 p.
Abstract: Three Parthian terracotta figurines from northern Syria are first published on page 53.
[Parthian portrait head statue] (1973)
Apollo, 1973, vol. 98, no. Oct, p. 256-257.
Abstract: Figure 10 is the original publishing of the Parthian head, accession number 1971.345 in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Head illustrated in BMFA, Romans and Barbarians, Boston, 1976.
Sims-Williams, Nicholas
"A Parthian Sound-Change" (1979)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1979, vol. 42, p. 133-136.
"Indian Elements in Parthian and Sogdian" (1983)
In: Röhrborn, Klaus & Veenker, Wolfgang (eds.), Sprachen des Buddhismus in Zentralasien : Vorträge des Hamburger Symposions vom 2. Juli bis 5. Juli 1981
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1983, p. 132-141.
"A New Fragment from the Parthian Hymn-cycle Huyadagmān" (1989)
In: de Fouchécour, Charles-Henri & Gignoux, Philippe (eds.), Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard
Paris: Studia Iranica, 1989, vol. 7, p. 321-331.
"The Parthian Abstract Suffix -yft". (2004)
In: Penney, John H. W. (ed.), Indo-European Perspectives. Studies in Honour of Anna Morpurgo Davies
New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 539-547.
Sims-Williams, Nicholas & de Blois, F.
"The Bactrian Calendar" (1998)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1998, tome/ser. New, vol. 10, p. 149-165.
Simulations Publications Inc.
Legion. Tactical Warfare in Roman Age, 100BC-700AD (1975)
Simulations Publications Inc., 1975
Abstract: "Legion" covers the period in which Roman dominance was extended across the entire known world, from 106 B.C., through the beginning of the long decline of the Roman Empire; the final battle depicted occurred in A.D. 552.

The development of the Roman legion throughout those six centuries is demonstrated, as is the changing quality of its opponents. We see the Romans pitted against various barbarians, watching a sort of capsulization of Roman expansion.

Game has 21 scenarios, including Carrhae 53 BC: Romans vs. Parthians and Daras AD 530: Byzantines vs. Persians
Sinisi, Fabrizio
"Tyche in Parthia: The image of the goddess on Arsacid Tetradrachms" (2008)
Numismatische Zeitschrift, 2008, vol. 116/117, p. 231-248.
"The Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum (SNP) project: Some remarks on Arsacid issues of the 1st century AD." (2009)
Abstract: Paper presented at the XIV International Numismatic Congress held in Glasgow, 31 August to 4 September 2009.
Sinor, Denis (ed.)
The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia (1990)
Cambridge: 1990
Abstract: See pages 158-171 for discussion of Parthian history with relationship to other countries of inner Asia.
Sitwell, N. N. H.
The World the Romans Knew (1984)
London: Hamish Hamilton, 1984
Abstract: History of the world at time of Rome's height; Celts, Germans, Africa, Eastern Europe, Arabia, Parthians, Sasanians, India, etc.
Skalmowski, W.
"Das Nomen im Parthischen" (1967)
Biuletyn Polskiego Towarzystwa Jezykoznawczego = Bulletin de la Société polonaise de linguistique, 1967, vol. 25, p. 75-89.
Skjærvø, Prods Oktor
"Verbal Ideograms and the Imperfect in Middle Persian and Parthian" (1953)
In: Sprengling, M., im Druck. Third Century Iran, Sapor and Kartir
Chicago: 1953
"Thematic and linguistic parallels in the Achaemenian and Sassanian inscriptions" (1953)
"Case in Inscriptional Middle Persian: Inscriptional Parthian and the Pahlavi Psalter" (1983)
Paris: Studia Iranica, 1983, vol. 12, p. 47-62, 151-181.
"Verbs in Parthian and Middle Persian Inscriptions" (1986)
In: Studia Grammatica Iranica. Festschrift für Helmut Humbach
München: 1986, p. 425-439.
"Verbal Ideograms and the Imperfect in Middle Persian and Parthian" (1989)
In: Etudes irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard / réunies par C.-H. de Fouchécour et Ph. Gignoux.
Paris: Studia Iranica, 1989, vol. 7, p. 333-354.
“The Earliest Datable Inscription on a Sasanian Bowl: Two Silver Bowls in the J. Paul Getty Museum” (1993)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1993, tome/ser. New, vol. 7, p. 181-192.
“Aramaic in Iran” (1995)
In: ARAM 7 (Palmyra and the Aramaeans), 1995 [1997/98]
ARAM, 1995, vol. 7, p. 283-318.
"The Avesta as source for the early history of the Iranians" (1995)
In: Erdosy, George (ed.), The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia : language, material culture and ethnicity
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995
“Iranian alphabets derived from Aramaic” (1996)
In: Daniels, Peter T. & Bright, W. (eds.), The World’s Writing Systems
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 515-535.
"The Joy of the Cup: A Pre-Sasanian Middle Persian Inscription on a Silver Bowl" (2000)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 2000, tome/ser. New, vol. 11, p. 93-104.
Abstract: The inscription on the silver bowl, which belonged to Prince Wahixshar, asks that the bowl give happiness to his brother, King Ardaxshar, and gives its weight as 50 staters. In discussing the inscription, the author makes various references to Parthian letter forms. Table 1 gives values of the stater on Parthian-period silver bowls; table 2 is a chart of the paleography of various Parthian letter forms.
"Methodological Questions in Old Persian and Parthian Epigraphy" (2002)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 2002, tome/ser. New, vol. 13, p. 157-167.
The Videvdad: its Ritual-Mythical Significance (2007)
In: Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh & Stewart, Sarah (eds.), Age of the Parthians. Series: Idea of Iran, vol. 2
London: I.B. Tauris, 2007
“Middle Persian and Parthian” (in press)
In: Windfuhr, Gernot (ed.), Typologies of Iranian Languages.
“Old Iranian languages” (in press)
In: Windfuhr, Gernot (ed.), Typologies of Iranian Languages.
“Writing systems. Iran: scripts, Aramaic” (in press)
In: Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics
2 ed.
Skupinska-Løvset, Ilona
Portraiture in Roman Syria : a study in social and regional differentiation within the art of portraiture (1999)
Lódz: Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Lódzkiego, 1999, 280 p.
Chapter 7. Fragmentary Statues
7.8. Chevalier Parthe
Slocum, John J.
"Another Look at the Coins of Hatra" (1977)
Museum Notes, 1977, vol. 22, p. 37-48.
Smirnova, Natasha
"Some questions regarding the numismatics of pre-Islam Merv" (2004)
In: Symposium: After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam. Themes in the history and Archaeology of Western Central Asia
The British Academy, London, 23-25 June 2004
Abstract: The numismatic material coming from the sites of Ancient Merv is large: the number of surface finds as well as that of stratified coins is substantial. The International Merv Project (IMP) had at its disposal about 1,550 coins discovered during excavations and survey work between 1992 and 2000. There are also several hundred coins including some hoards in the numismatic depository of the South Turkmenistan Archaeological Multi-disciplinary Expedition (YuTAKE) set up by M.E.Masson in the 1950s.

Archaeological investigations in Merv confirmed the existence of a Greek context covered over later by subsequent Parthian, Sasanian and Islamic structures. Twenty-six Greek coins from Gyaur-kala are mostly bronze specimens of small denominations, which came from the site after excavation work or as chance finds (1953-2000). There are no less than three new coin types occasionally present among the numismatic finds, which were unknown before the publication of Merv numismatic materials and which serve to confirm local minting and circulation. The composition of the list of Greek coin-finds from Ancient Merv is similar to the range coming from some other Central-Asian city-sites (Takht-i Sangin, Ai Khanoum). The presence in Margiana of Seleucid and Graeco-Bactrian coins confirmed the political influence and possessions of the Hellenistic rulers in this area. There is no interruption in the Greek numismatics of Margiana from Antiochus I (281-261 BC) to Eucratides I (170-145 BC). The question remains as to whether the Bactrian Greeks were the real owners of Margiana and, if so, which one of them (Diodotes I or Diodotes II) was the first ruler here.

In the mid-2nd century BC Margiana was incorporated into the expanding Parthian state. There is not one Parthian drachm from Merv from before the time of Phraates II (138-127 BC), who, as we know, emerged victorious from the fighting in 129 BC for the Eastern Satrapies against the Seleucid king, Antiochus VII [Justin, XLII, 1.4-5]. The question to be resolved is when the Parthians conquered Margiana – just after the death of Eucratides I between 145 and 129 BC or earlier, when Margiana – as one of two provinces lost by the Bactrians – was conquered by the Parthians [Justin, XL, 6]. Stable Parthian rule in Margiana between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD is demonstrated by the numismatic evidence. We have at our disposal 200 specimens of Parthian copper coins, which were mainly minted locally by unknown rulers from one of the branches of the Aršakid dynasty (monogram ? under a bow). These local issues are still not classified, because the complicated question of the last Parthian issues in Margiana has not yet been resolved.

About 30 late Roman Imperial bronze coins of small denominations of the 4th-5th century AD and some rare Byzantine bronze coins have been found in Merv, which served to confirm contacts between the Roman, Byzantine and Sasanian empires.

Among the 1,550 coin-finds from Merv there are about 1,000 identified items, including 700 coins – mostly bronze specimens – belonging to the Sasanian period. The most intensive period of coin production in Merv was in the reign of Shapur I (240-272) and Shapur II (309-379). A new local type of Sasanian coin with the image of a horseman was identified as having been minted by the Merv king ruling from 240-260.

There are no more than 10 coins from Merv, which belong to the categories of Vasudeva Imitations and Kushano-Sasanian Coppers by Hormizd (1) and Varahran (1). The short interruption (272-276) in Merv minting between Shapur I (240-272) and Varahran II (276-293) could possibly have been used by Kushanshah Hormizd I for issuing his rare Merv series. Mainly Kushan imitations and Kushano-Sasanian coppers were imported into Margiana and Sogdiana from Bactria and these were concentrated in the border region along the Amu-Darya river – the main trade route in Central Asia, but they were occasionally discovered in Merv itself.

The Sasanian coinage of the 4th and 5th centuries AD is well represented by coin-finds from the city-sites of Merv. Yet we have no registered coins of Ardashir II (379-383). The bronze coins of Varahran V (420-438) issued by the Merv mint are also unknown, but silver drachms of the Sasanian ruler were struck in Merv, issued specially for the needs of his military campaigns on the north-eastern borders of the Sasanian empire against the nomads. The period from the second half of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th century AD is remarkable for the absence of bronze anonymous issues with a fork-like object on the obverse, which appeared at this time. In 510 AD the minting of silver drachms began once again in Merv because of the more stable situation during Kavad's rule. Locally minted Sasanian coins of the 6th to early 7th century are well represented in Merv. There are two rare coins of Sasanian type of unknown local rulers from the second half of the 7th century and one with the name Halid, the Muslim governor of Basrah. [Author]
"Some Questions regarding the Numismatics of pre-Islamic Merv" (2007)
In: Cribb, Joe & Herrmann, Georgina (eds.), After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam. Proceedings of the British Academy ; 133
London: Oxford University Press, 2007
Smith, Andrew M., II
Identity, community, and state formation at Roman Palmyra (2004)
College Park, MD: University of Maryland College Park, 2004
Abstract: This is a study of identity, community, and the process of state formation in the Roman period at Palmyra, an oasis city in the Syrian desert, from the first to third centuries C.E. I address the key issue of cultural transmission and the development of an indigenous Palmyrene identity and community in the Roman Near East, as influenced by their pastoralist backgrounds and their contacts with Parthian and Roman powers. I examine these issues primarily through a re-evaluation of the local epigraphy in its urban context, complemented by examinations of the archaeology of the city and narrative sources. I demonstrate how the Palmyrenes managed to build a civic community that was distinctively Mediterranean in its makeup, and where a small elite dominated public affairs. I demonstrate how, despite increasing Roman influence over the city during the period of this study, the Palmyrenes retained their native identities in a communal setting, characterized by a cultural blend of Roman, Parthian, and indigenous habits. [Author]
Smith, F.
"Die Schlacht bei Carha" (1915)
Historische Zeitschrift, 1915, tome/ser. 3.F, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 237-262.
Smith, George
Assyrian discoveries : an account of explorations and discoveries on the site of Ninevah, during 1873 and 1874 (1875)
London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1875, 461 p.
Abstract: From Preface ...
THE following work was written to give in a permanent form some account of the excavations undertaken in 1873 and 1874 on the site of Nineveh ; and the principal discoveries which have resulted from these operations. The honour of having started this enterprise belongs to the proprietors of the "Daily Telegraph" newspaper, and at the close of the first expedition they presented the firman and excavating plant to the trustees of the British' Museum to facilitate the renewal of the work. The second expedition was only to take advantage of the remainder of the time allowed by the firman, and I was directed to close the excavations within the period allowed by the concession of the Porte.

I have been working in the territory of the Turkish empire, and it is with regret that I have had to mention the unsatisfactory conduct of many of its agents. I have not made the most of this; I have omitted many incidents of bad conduct, and have stated those I have mentioned as moderately and slightly as possible; but I could not have passed the subject over entirely without falsifying my narrative. I have not the smallest doubt that in the government of Asia the Turks are not alive to their own interests, and particularly in the oppressive laws and persecution of the Christians. The American missions in Asiatic Turkey are doing a noble work in the country, but they can only be useful in proportion to the amount of official support they receive from England and America.
Smith, R. Morton
Kings and coins in India : Greek and Saka self-advertisement (1997)
New Delhi: Harman Publishing House, 1997, 154 p.
Abstract: Contents: Preface. 1. From Diodotus to Pacores. 2. Introduction. 3. Success; to the death of Strabo I 101 BC. 4. Disruption; Antialcidas--Hermaeus 100-024 BC. 5. Sakas & Parthians 57 BC-63 AD. Appendices. Bibliography. Index of names and kings. Plates of monograms and symbols. " The present work seeks to establish a chronology that makes historical sense paying attention to the Indian information of the period of the Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian kings down to the establishment of the Kushan dynasty. While recognizing that the most lasting Greek legacy is coinage with the issuer's name, and so not profoundly significant for culture, this should not be without use and interest. " (publisher)
Smith, Vincent A. et al.
Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum Calcutta. Including the Cabinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal : Vol. 3: Græco-Bactrian (1906)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906
Abstract: ANA Library has a 1972 date for this: a reprint?
Vol. 3: Græco-Bactrian: "presents an enchanting variety of coins. Not only are included here the coins of the Græco-Bactrian and Indo-Skythian kings, but also the Parthian, Selukidian, Roman & Byzantine coins. It also catalogues coins of ancient India, some of which were probably among the ones current at the time of Alexander's invasion."
Bibliography - Page 60

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