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Shore, Fred B.
The Parthian (1982 ff.)
Fort Washington, PA: 1982
Abstract: Series of sales lists and catalogs. Prof. Ted Buttrey has noted the following in the Fitzwilliam collection:
SHORE, F.B. (The Parthian), Fort Washington, PA
* lists and auctions in a single sequence
* the bracketted dates have been recovered from postmarks, the
early serial numbers from B. C. Demetriadi's complete series.

Lists: {Small general}
undated: lot 3, Bosporus; lot 3, Calabria;
[1982]: [no 1], [15 Sep]; [no 2], [18 Nov];
[1983]: [no 3], [ 1 Apr]; [no 4], [12 Jul];
[no 5], [24 Sep]; [no 6], [ 2 Oct];
[1984]: [no 8], [ 7 May];

undated: nos 12-21, 23-7, 31, 35, 37, 39, 44, 47-61, 67-68
{Large general}
undated: nos 73, 76, 78-9, 87, 89-91

Auction: {Large general}
1996: no 77, 25 Oct
"A Symbol on a Parthian Drachm of Phraataces" (1983)
SAN (Journal of the Society for Ancient Numismatics), 1983, vol. 14, no. 3 (Fall), p. 50, 58.
Abstract: For their drachms, the Kushan conquerors adopted a version of the fire alter, or anchor, similar to emblems used by the Parthian kings. (V. Kozik)
"A new variety of Parthian drachm" (1989)
Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter, 1989, no. 118
"Parthian tetradrachms rival Hellenistic portraiture" (1990)
The Celator, 1990, vol. 4, no. 7 (Jul), p. 30.
Parthian Coins & History - Ten Dragons Against Rome (1993)
Quarryville, Pa: Classical Numismatic Group, 1993, 188 p.
Abstract: An excellent and up to date survey of the coinage, cross-referenced to Sellwood. 81 pages of history plus a catalogue of 645 Parthian coins (483 illustrated). Shore proposes some changes in Sellwood's attributions. An accompanying 8-page brochure, "Rarity & Value Guide" was also published.
"Parthian Coins & History: Ten Dragons Against Rome -- Rarity & Value Guide" (1993)
Quarryville, Pa: Classical Numismatic Group, 1993, 8 p.
Sicker, Martin
The pre-Islamic Middle East (2000)
Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000
Abstract: Chapters:
11 The Roman-Parthian Conflict
12 The Struggle over the Euphrates Frontier
13 The Roman-Persian Stalemate
Sidari, Daniela
Problema partico ed imitatio Alexandri nella dinastia giulio-claudia (1982)
In: Memorie. Classe di scienze morali, lettere ed arti ; v. 38, fasc. 3
Venezia: Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 1982
Sidebotham, Steven E.
"Roman Interests in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean" (1996)
In: Reade, J. E. (ed.), The Indian Ocean in Antiquity
London: Kegan Paul International, 1996, p. 290-308.
Abstract: Mentions that Roman subjects and citizens resided abroad for commercial purposes in Parthain territory at Vologesias [p. 295]. Contains an excellent bibliography for Rome's trade with the East.
Sierlin, H.
Die Welt der Perser (1956)
1956, 95 p.
Abstract: Contains a chapter on Parthia.
Simonetta, Alberto M.
"The drachms of Vologases I and Artabanus IV" (1949)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1949, tome/ser. 6, vol. 9, p. 237-239.
"La dinastia Indo-Partica: nuore osservazioni ed ipotesti" (1953-1954)
Numismatica, 1954, vol. 19-20, p. 9-18.
"Notes on the Parthian and Indo-Parthian Issues of the 1st Century B.C." (1957)
In: Actes du Congrès international de numismatique, Paris, 6-11 juillet, 1953, vol. 2
Paris: Commission internationale de numismatique, 1957, p. 111-121.
"A New essay on the Indo-Greeks, the Sákas, and the Pahlavas" (1958)
East and West, 1958, vol. 9, no. 3 (Sep), p. 154-183.
Abstract: Publishes a Soter Megas coin that bears a countermark of Parthian king Pacorus (AD 35-55). [Attribution is Simonetta's, not consistent with Sellwood]
"Some remarks on the Arsacid coinage of the period 90-57 B.C." (1966)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1966, tome/ser. 7, vol. 6, p. 15-40.
Abstract: Simonnetta questions Gutschmid's reading of the cuneiform tablets, first published in the 1880s, and the dating offered for Artabanus II, Gotarzes I and Orodes I.

The evidence available for the arrangement and attribution of the Arsacid coins issued between 90 and 57 B.C. is revised by a reappraisal of the historical sources and especially of a new translation of some cuneiform documents. Two hoards of Parthian drachms and Syrian and Cappadocian coins are also briefly described. A new arrangement of the chronology, including the suggestion that a ruler of unknown name ruled Parthia after Gotarzes I and Orodes I and previous to Sinatruces, is proposed. While most traditional attributions appear to be warranted, part of the coins traditionally attributed to Phraates III as well as those formerly attributed by Wroth to "Artabanus II" and the "Unknown King" require new attributions. [Author]
"Indo-Parthian coinage -- New considerations and hypotheses" (1967)
Journal of Ancient Indian History, 1967, vol. 1, p. 150-173.
Abstract: A chronology of Indo-Parthian rulers is reconstructed on the basis of their coinage. Nine rulers, from Vonones (ca. 52-40 B.C.) to Sanabares (A.D. 56-ca. 66) are considered. [Robert S. Wicks]
"La monetazione Partica dal 247 al 122 a.C." (1968)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1968, tome/ser. 5, vol. 16, no. [70], p. 11-76.
Abstract: Also as Volume 70.
"La monetazione indo-partica ed il suo significato per la cronologia dei Kushana" (1971)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1971, tome/ser. 5, vol. 19, p. 33-47.
"The Indo-Parthian Coinage and Its Significance in the Chronology of the Kushans" (1974)
In: [(Proceedings of) an international conference on the history, archeology and culture of Central Asia in the Kushan period] Vol. 1.
Moscow: Nauka, 1974, p. 283-288.
Abstract: Full title: Tsentralnaia Aziia v kushanskuiu epokhu [Central Asia in the Kushan period]. Mezhdunarodnia konferentsiia po istorii, arkheologii i kul'tury Tsentral'noi Azii v kushanskuiu epokhu [(Proceedings of) an international conference on the history, archeology and culture of Central Asia in the Kushan period] Vol. 1.

Parthian and Indo-Parthian coin series are discussed and a chronology is established to suggest that the Indo-Parthian coins provide indirect evidence for the era of Kanishka around A.D. 130. [P. L. Gupta]
"Numismatic Provinces and the Debasement of Coinage in the Parthian Empire" (1979)
In: Härtel, Herbert (ed), Papers from the Fifth International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe Held in the Museum für Indische Kunst der Staatlichen Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin
"The chronology of NW India in the first century A.D. and its possible verification" (1993)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1993, vol. 22, p. 169-185.
"A proposed revision of the attributions of the Parthian coins struck during the so-called 'Dark Age' and its historical significance" (2001)
East and West, 2001, vol. 51, no. 1-2 (June), p. 69-108.
"Overstrikes, mules, modified dies and retouched coins in the Arsacid coinage : a discussion of their significance " (2006)
Parthica, 2006, vol. 8, p. 41-54.
"La monetazione di età seleucide e partica della zecca di Seleucia al Tigri" (2007)
In: Invernizzi, Antonio (ed.), Sulla via di Alessandro da Seleucia al Gandhara (Catalog of the exhibition, Palazzo Madama, Torino, 27 Feb to 27 May 2007)
Torino: Edizioni Silvana Editoriale, 2007
Simonetta, Alberto M. & Sellwood, David
"Again on the Parthian coins from Mithridates II to Orodes II" (1978)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1978, vol. 7, p. 95-119.
Abstract: A new chronology for the Parthian coinage at Susa is proposed. Includes bibliography. [Sara Sorda]
A. Simonetta's new assignment of the Parthian coinages between Mithradates II and Orodes II, based on historical sources as well as numismatic methodology, mentions Pacorus as well as a supposed Vonones I, who presumably ruled c. 78-76 B.C. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986]
Simonetta, Alberto M. & Simonetta, Bono
"Le vicende di Fraate IV, re dei Parti ricostruite con l'aiuto dei tetradrammi da lui coniati" [The vicissitudes of Phraates IV, king of Parthia, reconstructed by the aid of the tetradrachms minted by him] (1949)
Numismatica, 1949, vol. 15, no. 1-6, p. 37-46.
Abstract: A discussion of the evidence which a study of his coins, particularly the fine series of dated tetradrachms, can contribute to our hitherto sketchy knowledge of the reign of the Parthian king Phraates IV. Phraates' defeat of Antony and later friendly relations with Augustus merited him mention by Roman historians, but their facts are at variance and obscured by traditional ideas about Parthians in general. A tabulated study of Phraates' coins has enabled the authors to establish accurate dates and what must be a fairly certain historical outline of his reign. (NumLit) See translation by H. A. Murray in New Zealand Numismatic Journal, Vol. 7, nos. 2 & 3.
"The vicissitudes of Phraates IV, king of Parthia, reconstructed by the aid of the tetradrachms minted by him" ["Le vicende di Fraate IV, re dei Parti ricostruite con l'aiuto dei tetradrammi da lui coniati" extracted and translated by H. A. Murray] (1953)
New Zealand Numismatic Journal, 1953, vol. 7, no. 2 (May-Aug), p. 54-58.
Abstract: Continued in The New Zealand Numismatic Journal v. 7, no. 3 (Sept.-Dec. 1953), p. 79-87. Translated by H. A. Murray from Numismatica, v. 15, nos. 1-6 (1949), p. 37-46, ill.].
Simonetta, Bono
"Osservazioni intorno alle monete coniate dai primi Re Parti" (1948)
Numismatica, 1948, no. 4-6 (Jul-Dec), p. 71-82.
Abstract: See translation by H. A. Murray in NZNJ, vol. 7, no. 1 (Jan-Apr 1953), pp. 12-28.
"Observations on the coins minted by the first Parthian Kings" ["Osservazioni intorno alle monete coniate dai primi Re Parti", translated by H. A. Murray] (1948)
New Zealand Numismatic Journal, 1953, vol. 7, no. 1 (Jan-Apr), p. 12-28.
Abstract: English translation by H. A. Murray. See original Italian article in Numismatica, Nos. 4-6 (Jul-Dec 1948), pp. 71-82.
"A proposito di Moneti Arsacidi con 'Berretto Satrapale'" (tr. by H. A. Murray) (1950)
New Zealand Numismatic Journal, 1955, vol. Sep-Dec, p. 115-120.
Abstract: English translation by H. A. Murray. See original Italian article in Numismatica, Jan-Dec 1950, pp. 22-25.
"A proposito di Moneti Arsacidi con 'Berretto Satrapale'" (1950)
Numismatica, 1950, vol. Jan-Dec, p. 22-25.
"Note di Numismatica Vologese V, Artabano V e Artavasde : una revisione di fatti e di ipotesi" (1954)
Numismatica, 1953, vol. 19-20, p. 19-22.
"Concernig Arsacid Coins with Satraps Cap" [Translated by H. A. Murray] (1955)
New Zealand Numismatic Journal, 1955, vol. 8, no. 4 (Sep-Dec), p. 115-120.
Abstract: Simonetta disputes de Morgan's claim that the early beardless issues bearing satrap's cap represent priestly issues attributable to Arsacid princes between 128-88 B.C, and places these coins prior to 138 B.C. [W. E. Daehn]
"A Note on Vologases V, Artabanus V and Artavasdes" (1956)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1956, tome/ser. 6, vol. 16, p. 77-82.
"Notes on Parthian Numismatics" [tr. by H. A. Murray] (1956)
New Zealand Numismatic Journal, 1956, vol. 9, no. 2 (Sep 56 - Mar 57), p. 65-69.
Abstract: English translation by H. A. Murray.
"Note di numismatica Partica: Vonone II, Vologese I e Vardane II" (1958)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1958, vol. 60, p. 3-10.
Abstract: Also discusses Flavius Josephus.
"Un interessante tesoretto di tetradrammi di Vologeses III" (1971)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1971, vol. 73, p. 57-62.
Abstract: Describes a hoard of 57 tetradrachms of Vologases IV (A.D. 147-190) found at Aradus.
"Problemi di numismatica partica: tetradramma di Mitridate II o de 'Re ignoto?' Osservazioni sulle monete fra il 90 ed 70 a.C." (1974)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1974, vol. 76, p. 115-138.
Abstract: English, French and German summaries. Discussion of the Parthian "Dark Age".

Notwithstanding the characteristic typology of Mithradates II, a hitherto unknown tetradrachm in the author's collection should not be attributed to him. The curious legend indicates it is the issue of an unknown sovereign who immediately succeeded Mithradates. A different order in the succession of Parthian kings between 90 and 70 B.C. is proposed; the various emissions have also to be rearranged. [Sara Sorda]
"Problemi di numismatica partica: Osservazioni sulle attribuzioni delle monete partiche coniate fra 70 ed il 57 a.C." (1975)
Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau, 1975, vol. 54, p. 65-78.
Abstract: French and German summaries. David Sellwood's chronology (in an article in press) of Parthian kings in the "dark age" is the starting point for a regrouping of coins and rulers in the first half of the first century B.C. [Hansjörg Bloesch]
"Un tetradramma inedito di Artabanus I di Parthia" (1975)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1975, vol. 4, p. 151-156.
"Un tetradramma inedito di Artabanus di Parthia" (1976)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1976, vol. 4, p. 151-156.
Abstract: It is difficult to place chronologically a coin with obv.: bust of the king with coiffure similar to that of his predecessors and rev.: Apollo on omphallos, with a palm branch to r., the legend BASILEUS ARSAKOU, and a monogram in the exergue. [Sara Sorda] Simonetta publishes a tetradrachm with the portrait of Artabanus I (c. 127-123 B.C.) on the obverse. The reverse type, Apollo seated on an omphalos, and a monogram connect the new coin with an issue of Phraates II (Sellwood 1971, 14/1), minted at Susa. [Mørkholm, "Greece to India", 1979]
"Sul probabile significato di un monogramma su alcune dramme partiche" (1976)
Quaderni Ticinesi, 1976, vol. 5, p. 103-106.
Abstract: The monogram STR on Parthian drachms is an abbreviation of STRATEIA and indicates the series was struck at a mint which accompanied a large military expedition and limited its activity to silver. [Sara Sorda]

Simonetta publishes a tetradrachm of Artabanus I struck in Susa.
"Sulla monetazione di Fraate IV e di Tiridate II di Parthia" (1976)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1976, tome/ser. 6, vol. 23, no. [78], p. 19-34.
Abstract: Also cited as RIN, 76, 1976. In English, with French and German summaries. Treats Phraates IV (38-2 B.C.), and Titidates II (c. 27 B.C.) [current thought, Tiridates I, 29-27 B.C.]

The tetradrachms of Seleucid era 284 with portrait without wart, all the tetradrachms of 285 and those of 286 without wart and with legends AUTOKRATOROS and FILOPWMAIOU should be attributed to Titidates II.
"On some tetradrachms of Orodes II and the probable issues of Pacorus I" (1978)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1978, tome/ser. 7, vol. 18, p. 7-13.
Abstract: Also cited as NC, 138, 1978. The author has reassigned a tetradrachm issue previously given to Orodes II to Pacorus I, Orodes' son and co-regent. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194.]

Imperfectly known tetradrachms of Orodes II described were coined to commemorate the conquest of Gaza by his son Pacorus I in 40 B.C. It is now possible to ascribe to Pacorus some rare tetradrachms with KTISTHS (until now thought to belong to the first coins of Orodes) issued probably in 40 B.C. won his war with Syria and Palestine. [Author]
"Considerazioni sull'inizio dell'anno partico nella monetazione di Seleucia sul Tigri" (1978)
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1978, vol. 28, no. 109 (Feb), p. 2-8.
Abstract: Discusses the concurrent use at Seleucia on the Tigris of two calendars, one the Seleucid, which was used for official Parthian coinage, the other the Babylonian, which was employed for local issues of the polis. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194]
"Le monete quale documentazione dell'atteggiamento dei Parti di fronte all'influsso greco ed a quello romano" (1979)
Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1979, p. 35-48.
Abstract: French, English and German summaries. Based on numismatic and historical evidence and contrary to the views expressed earlier by J. Wolski ("Les Parthes et leur attitude envers le monde gréco-romaine" in Assimilation et résistance à la culture gréco-romaine [Travaux du VIe Congrès International d'Etudes Classiques, Madrid, 1974]), the author proposes that the Parthians kept alive Greek cultural and artistic traditions while rejecting the influence of the Romans. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194]
"Considerzioni sulla monetazione dei Parti in rapporto con le loro vicende storiche" (1980)
In: Memorie dell'Accademia italiana di studi filatelici e numismatici v. 1, fasc. 3
1980, p. 47-52.
"Le contremarche della monetazione Arsacide" (1980)
Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse), 1980, vol. 30, no. 19, p. 62-67.
Abstract: Discusses and attempts to attribute the five varieties of countermarks which appear on Parthian drachms struck from about 80 B.C. to A.D. 45. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194]
"Osservazioni sulla monetazione Partica in bronzo da Mithradates I a Phraates IV" (1982)
Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau, 1982, vol. 61, p. 43-57.
Abstract: The denominations of most Parthian bronze coins are virtually indistinguishable, but B. Simonetta has noted those exceptional series or instances where marks of value or differences of reverse types make their determination possible. [Houghton, "Syria and the East", 1986, p. 194.] These exceptions include specimens with marks of value at the beginning of the series whose largest denomination must have been a piece of eight chalkoi, as well as a few sequences in which the types of reverses distinguish units from multiples. [H. Bloesch]
Bibliography - Page 59

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